Psych Vocab

  1. Memory
    The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
  2. Encoding
    The processing of information into the memory system–for example, by extracting meaning.
  3. Storage
    The retention of encoded information over time
  4. Retrieval
    The process of getting information out of memory storage.
  5. Sensory Memory
    The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
  6. Short-term Memory
    Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, suh as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
  7. long-term memory
    The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
  8. Working Memory
    Concentrates on the active processing of information in this intermediate stage. Associates new and old information and solves problems.
  9. Rehearsal
    Conscious repetition to encode a memory for storage.
  10. Spacing effect
    The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
  11. Serial Position Effect
    Our tendency to recall best the las and first items in a list.
  12. Imagery
    Mental pictures; a powerfull aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with encoding.
  13. Mnemonics
    Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and oragnizational devices.
  14. Chunking
    Oragnizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automaticly.
  15. Iconic Memory
    A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
  16. Echoic memory
    A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
  17. Long-term Potentiation
    Increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
  18. Flashbulb Memory
    A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
  19. Amnesia
    Loss of memory
  20. Implicit Memory
    Retention independent of conscious recollection
  21. Explicit Memory
    Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare.
  22. Explicit memory
    Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare.
  23. Recall
    Retrieving information learned earlier.
  24. Recognition
    Need only to identify items previously learned.
  25. Relearing
    A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
  26. Priming
    The activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory
  27. State-dependent memory
    Remembering things better when you are in the same state of mind you learned them in.
  28. Deje vu
    Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
  29. Mood-congruent memory
    The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
  30. Proactive interference
    The disruptive effec of prior learnign on the recall of new information
  31. Retractive interference
    The disruptive effec of new learning on the recall of old information.
  32. Repression
    The basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thought, feelings, and memories.
  33. Misinformation effect
    Incorporating mis leading information into one's memory of an event.
  34. Source Amnesia
    Attributing to the wrong source and event we have experience, heard about, read about or imagined.
  35. Cognition
    The mental activites associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
  36. Concept
    A mentalgrouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people.
  37. prototype
    A mental image or best example of a category.
  38. Insight
    A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
  39. Confirmation Bias
    a tendecy to search for infromation that supports our views that we already had.
  40. fixation
    the inability to see a problem from a new perspecitve, by emplying a different mental set.
  41. Mental set
    Approach a problem the same way because that way worked in the past.
  42. Overconfidence Bias
    the tendecy to be more confident that correct
  43. Intuition
    An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
  44. Framing
    The way and issue is posed.
Card Set
Psych Vocab
Vocab for psych