Defintion of Communication
the transfer and understanding of meaning.
The Communication Process
- 1. the sender
- 2. encoding
- 3.the message
- 4. the channel
- 5. decoding
- 6. the receiver
- 7. noise
- 8. feedback
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
the sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product of the senders encoding. When we speak, the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we gesture , the movements of our arms and the expressions on our faces are the message. The determing whether to use a formal or informal channel. Formal Channels are established by the organization and transmit messages related by the professional activities of member. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization. Other forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow informal channels, which are spontaneous and emrge as a response to individual choices. The receiver is the persons to whom the message is directed , who must translate the symbols to understandable form. This is the step of decoding of the message. Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message, such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties. The final in the communication process is feedback loop. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended. It determines whether understading has been achieved.
How do group members transfer meaning beteween and among each other? They essentially rely on oral, written, and nonverbal communication
- ORAL- chief of conveying messages formall one on one and group discussions, and the informal rumor mill and graevine are popular forms of oral commuication.
- advantages: speed and feedback.
- dis: surfaces whenever a message has to pass through a number of people.
- WRITTEN: incluldes memos, letters, fax transmissions, email instant messaging, organizational periodicals, notices placed on bulletin board, devics that transmits via written words or symbols.
- tangible and verifiable.stored for indefinite period. logical , clear, thought out.
- dis: time consuming
- NON VERBAL- stare, smile, glance, frown, and provactive body movement all convery meaning. body movements , the intonations or emphasis we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and reciever.
- physical distance , facial expressions, intonations have meaning.
Organizational Communication- Formal Small group networks, The grapevine, rumors
- Formal Small Group- can be very complicated, including hundreds of people and half dozen or more hiearchical levels. Three common small groups of five people : CHAIN, WHEEL , and CHANNEL
- CHAIN: rigidly follows the formal chain of command: this network approximates the communication channesl you might find in a rigid three level organization.
- WHEEL:relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all the groups communicatin: it stimulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader.
- ALL CHANNEL; permits all gorup members to actively communicate with each other; its most often characterized in practice by self managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and on one person takes on a leadership role.
:informal network in a group organization. First its not controlled by management. Second most employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communiques issued by top management. Finally it is largely used to serve the interests of the people within it,
-emerge as a response to situations that are important to us, where thereis ambiguity and under conditions that arouse anxiety.
Choice of Communication Channel
- Channel differ in their capacity to convey info
- Some are rich in that they can
- 1. handle multiple cues simultaneously
- 2. facilitate rapid feedback
- 3. be very personal
- others are LEAN in that they score low on these factors.
- FACE TO FACE scores highest in channel richness bc it transmits the most info per communication episode, multiple info cues(words, postures, facial expressions, gestures, intonations) immediate feedback (both verbal and non verbal) and the personal touch of being present. Impersonal written media sucha as formal reports and bullets are lowest in richness
- rich in that they can
- 1. Hangle multiple cures simultaneously
- 2. faciliate rapid feedback
- 3. very personal
others are lean in thay they score low on these facots.
A number of barriers can reard or distort effective communication In this section, we highlight the most important of these barriers.
FILTERING- refers to a senders purposely manipulation info so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering.
SELECTIVE PERCEPTION- process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characterisitcs.
INFORMATION OVERLOAD- when the info we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity , the result is info overlaod. Tend to select, ignore, pass, forget info.
EMOTIONS- most likely to hinder communication. most prone to disreguard our rational and objective thinking processes and substitue emotional judgements.
LANGUAGE-age and context are two of the most biggest factors that influence such difference.
SILENCE- silence and with holding. silence means managers lack info about ongoing operational problems. silence can mean psychological stress.
COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION- social anxiety-undue tension and anxiety in oral communication, written, or both.
POLITICALLY CORRECT COMMUNICATION- which is concerned with being inoffensive that meaning and simplicity are lost or free expression is hampered. plenty of words and phrases invoke neither racial slur nor poltically correct language.
the choice of channel depends on whether the message is routine or non routine
routine messages- tend to be straight forward and have minimal ambiguity ; channels in low in richness can carry them efficiently
nonroutine communications are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding.
first are barriers caused by semantics- words mean different thing to diffeernt people, particularly people from different national cultures.
second are barriers caused by word connotations- words imply different things in different languages.
third are barriers caused by tone differences= some cultures language is formal, in others its informal.
fourth are difference in tolerance for conflict and methods for resolving conflicts- others can be more comfortable with direct conficts and will make the source of their disagreements overt.