"[In a state of nature, without governments, life would be] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
- “Sapere aude! [Dare to think!] Have courage to use your own reason!- that is the motto
- of enlightenment.”
- “All people are born free and
- equal with natural rights: life, liberty, and property.”
Like usa constitution
People give government power
- “I disapprove of what you say,
- but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Like the bill of rights
Freedom of speech
- “The best way to preserve
- freedom is to divide authority.”
- Power divided among three
Checks and balances
Federal system of government
- "Man is born free and
- everywhere is in chains.”
- [Society restricts man because
- the strongest create unjust laws, thus destroying freedom & equality.]
- public election of president and
“Punishment is justified only to defend the social contract and to ensure that everyone will be motivated to abide by it. The method of punishment selected should be that which serves the greatest public good.”
Bill of rights protects rights of accuses and prohibits cruel and unusual punishment
“Let woman share the rightsand she will imitate the virtues of men; for she must grow more perfect when emancipated.”
- Social classes
- the 1st and 2nd have the most power and use it to supress the 3rd estate
- 1st and 2nd Estates scorned Enlightenment ideals which threatened their status and power.
- owned 10% of land
- paid 2% of income as taxes
- owned 30% of land
- paid almost no taxes
- Common People
- 97-98% of population; bourgeoisie (included merchants, doctors, lawyers), urban lower class (cooks, servants), peasants (80% of total population)
- paid high taxes and had few privileges and rights.
What were the three forces pushing the French toward revolution?
- New ideas about power and authority in government.
- People question long-standing ideas about structure of society.
- Success of American Revolution.
- Heavy tax burden
- Bad weather caused widespread crop failures
- Extravagant spending by King and Queen and heavy borrowing put the government in extreme debt.
- Louis XVI paid little attention to the coming crisis.
- Wife Marie Antoinette: Madame Deficit.
Estates General called May, 1789.
- Louis XVI had to call the assembly of representatives from all three estates for approval of a tax reform.
- French nobility resisted Louis’ attempts to impose taxes on them. The Parlement (a judicial organization controlled by the nobilty) blocked the King’s move, forcing him to call the Estates General (for the first time in 175 years).
Creation of National Assembly, June 1789.
- The 3rd Estate pressed for changes in the Estates-General’s voting rules.
- 3rd Estate voted to establish a National Assembly, in effect proclaiming the end to absolute monarchy and the beginning of representative government.
- Members of the 3rd Estate insisted that the three orders meet together and vote by head, not by the traditional estate (because they had the most representatives, this would give them a majority).
- believed the the 3rd estate should be heard
- started the national assembly
Tennis Court Oath
- when the national assembly was locked out of the meeting hall the went to the kings tennis court and made an oath to stay together until they have a constitution to protect the people
- when the king heard of this he ordered them to disperse but they did not
- the rest of the estates were forced to join by the king later
Storming the Bastille 14 July 1789
- stormed in to the prison to get weapons and to free those who were wrongfully accused
- they killed all of the gaurds
- only 7 prisoners were in there
The Great Fear
- the feaudal system began to fall apart
- peasants revolted dystroying documents and the nobel's homes
- nobels feared for their lives and status
Women's March to Versailles 1789
- women wanted bread
- forced the king to come out and speak to them
- the women and the national gaurd forced the royal family back to paris
The Declaration of the Rights of Man (August 1789)
- Men are born free and equal.
- Natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
- Guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech and religion.
- The National Assembly created a limited monarchy and handed power over to a new assembly for the creation of laws.
- King and his ministers still have power to enforce laws
Factions Split France
- Sans-Culottes (extreme left)
- Émigrés (extreme right)
- against austria and prussia
- both were afraid of the revolt in france and didnt want their countries to do the same things so they faught france to but Lois back on the throne
Storming the Tuileres June 1792
Mob placing the red cap of liberty on the King's head at the Tuileries
September Massacres 1792
In 5 days, over 1000 people were murdered.
National Convention Established
- Louis XVI appears before the National Convention to await his verdict.
- sentenced to be executed by the Guillotine
- head of the community of public safty
- it was a police force
- he scentenced people to death by the guillotine
Reign of Terror
- Committee of Public Safety
- 40,000 people killed during “Reign of Terror.” Nearly 85% were urban poor or middle class
- The Guillotine
End of the Terror
- Robespierre guillotined
- Public weary of violence
- New constitution and Government
National Convention Reforms France
- Undoes Radical Reforms
- Removes many emergency economic reforms
- Allows Catholic Church to regain some power (Does not return the Church’s wealth)
- Ratifies the Constitution
- Creates the Directory
- Peace Treaty
- Economic Reforms
- Government Reforms
- Concordat of 1801
- The Napoleonic Code
- built the largest empire since the romans
- Restricted individual rights
- Women denied political rights
- Free speech and expression limited
- Not allowed to criticize the government
Continental system: he tried to cut off england from the rest of europe
The peninsula War: when cutting off england he tried to take porcugal which involved going through spain; gorrilla war tactics
Invasion of Russia: took moscow bu then russians started using scoarched earth tactics forcing france back
After the Russian campaign, Napoleon’s enemies join forces against him. He is defeated by April 1814, and exiled to the island of Elba (off of Italy). He escapes less than a year later.
Battle at Waterloo
Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo ended his last bid for power, called the Hundred Days. He was exiled again to St. Helena (island in the South Atlantic Ocean, about midway between South America and Africa) .
Congress of Vienna 1814-1815
- Representatives from Prussia, Russia, Britain, Austria and France met in secret for nine months
- European heads of government were looking to establish long-lasting peace and stability on the continent after the defeat of Napoleon. Their overall goal was a new “European order” -- one of collectivesecurity and stability for the continent.
Goals of the congress of vienna
- contain france: How? By surrounding France with stronger countries. Why? To prevent future aggression.
- restore balance of power: How? By redrawing the map of Europe with equal power. Why? So no country would gain too much power.
- restore monarchs: How? By affirming the principle of legitimacy (rightful rulers). Why? To stabilize political relations.
- supress nationalism: How? By redrawing the borders without regard to ethnic/national boundaries. Why? To limit the threat of revolutions based on nationality.