1. What was the first framework of government for
    the independent United States?
    The Articles of Confederation
  2. What
    British general surrendered at Yorktown?
    Lord Cornwallis
  3. As
    vice president, John Adams was not invited to cabinet meetings; his only
    official duty was to:
    preside over the Senate
  4. 1. Washington chose which of the following men to
    be his secretary of the treasury?
    Alexander Hamilton
  5. The
    market revolution experienced by Americans after the War of 1812
    • brought increasing numbers of people out of old
    • patterns of rural self-sufficiency into the wider realm of national market
    • relations.
  6. Which
    state constructed the Erie Canal
        1. New York
  7. Who
    is known as the “father of the constitution”?
    James Madison
  8. For
    the Indians, the peace that began in 1783:
    meant displacement and the future loss of land
  9. African
    American Christianity, created by slaves themselves,
        1. was an interpretation of the Christian message that emphasized
        2. justice, salvation, and liberation from slavery.
  10. Under
    the federal constitution, the three branches of the federal government were and
    Executive, Legislative, Judiciary
  11. American
    cotton production underwent a real boom in the late 1790s primarily because of
    he invention of the cotton gin.
  12. 1.
    During the Revolutionary era, women who owned
    property were granted the right to vote by the new state constitution of:
    New Jersey
  13. 1.
    During the 1790s, a rift developed between
    Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson partly because:
        1. Hamilton supported the commercial elite and admired the British.
  14. During the Revolutionary
    War, the British had the advantage over the Americans in all of
    the following areas except
    • the support of the local
    • population and governments.

  15. Washington’s surprise
    attack across the Delaware River on Christmas
    • followed by another small
    • victory at nearby Princeton.
  16. The Americans’ victory at
    the Battle of Saratoga was crucial to their ultimate victory over the British
    for all of the following reasons except

    • state governments took
    • advantage of increased American morale in order to raise taxes and supply the
    • Continental army with much-needed cash.

  17. Baron von Steuben played a
    critical role in the revolution when he
    • instituted new training
    • that toughened American soldiers.
  18. The wartime diplomatic agreement in 1778
    cementing the French-U.S. alliance was the
    Treaty of Alliance.

  19. The French alliance affected
    the American cause because

    • it provided badly needed
    • funds and goods to the Continental army.
  20. The French government’s
    willingness to support the Patriots’ cause was triggered by
    • France’s intention to
    • avenge its loss of Canada to the British in the Great War for Empire.
  21. Local militia contributed
    significantly to all of the following Revolutionary War
    battles except
    Camden in 1780.
  22. The events leading to the
    military defeat of Cornwallis saw all of the following
    developments except
    • an American victory at the
    • great pitched battle outside of Yorktown.
  23. Pennsylvania’s democratic
    • alarmed many leading
    • Patriots.
  24. The Articles of
    • b. accorded states various
    • powers but gave the central government control over foreign affairs.
  25. A postwar crisis
    developed for all of the following reasons except

    • the British threatened to
    • invade America from Canada.
  26. In the West, the
    Confederation Congress
    • both restricted and allowed
    • for the expansion of slavery.
  27. 15. Shays’s Rebellion was
    essentially a struggle about the
    • lack of debtor-relief
    • legislation.
  28. British textile
    manufacturers were able to out-compete American manufacturers because they
    possessed all of the
    following advantages except
    • abundant cotton
    • production at home
  29. The development of machine
    tools is significant because they

    • produced machines
    • that made standardized parts rapidly and cheaply.

  30. Unions, mutual benefit
    societies, and the labor theory of value are all examples of
    • working-class attempts to
    • gain some control over working conditions.
  31. Factories relied on which of the following to increase productivity?
    division of labor
  32. The Waltham plan was a
    revolutionary change for American industry because it
    • cut labor costs by
    • hiring women and girls.
  33. Western commercial cities
    such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and New Orleans grew rapidly in the 1830s
    • they were located
    • where goods had to be transferred from one mode of transportation to another.
  34. New York City’s economic
    advantages included all of
    the following except
    • the fact that it was
    • the state capital.
  35. The number of city dwellers
    in the United States grew by which of the following percentages between 1820
    and 1840?
    400 percent
  36. The Erie Canal was so
    successful because it
    • linked the economies
    • of the Midwest and the Northeast.
  37. The Supreme Court case
    of Gibbons v. Ogden in
    1824, which struck down a New York law that created a monopoly on steamboat
    travel into New York City, was important because it
    • prevented state and
    • local laws from interfering with interstate trade.
  38. Workers who faced the worst
    working and living conditions were
    casual laborers.
  39. The disease in 1849 that
    killed thousands of poor immigrants in St. Louis and New York City was
  40. All of the following statements accurately describe the Irish in
    America except they
    • settled in the
    • southern states.
  41. What was the average amount
    of whiskey that Americans drank per person in 1830 compared to 1845?
    • five gallons/two
    • gallons
  42. Benevolent groups persuaded
    local governments to ban carnivals such as
    Negro Election Day.
  43. In his financial program,
    Hamilton wanted to

    • empower the central
    • government by connecting its interests to those of the elite.
  44. Jay’s controversial Treaty
    of 1795 with the British included all of the following
    terms except
    • a return of property
    • confiscated from Loyalists during the Revolution.
  45. Jefferson objected to
    Hamilton’s fiscal programs because they

    • went beyond a strict
    • interpretation of the Constitution.
  46. The Whiskey Rebellion was
    especially frightening because the rebels
    • looked to the French
    • Revolution for inspiration.
  47. Two political factions grew
    out of the Federalists as a result of conflict over
    Hamilton’s fiscal programs.
  48. American Indian policy from
    1790 to 1820 included all of the following except
    • allowing native peoples, as
    • independent nations, to negotiate and establish alliances with any other
    • country.
  49. Slavery thrived in the new
    lands of the Old Southwest because of

    • an expansion of cotton
    • production.
  50. Native Americans objected
    to the Treaty of Paris because it

    • c. gave their lands, although
    • unconquered, to the United States.
  51. New lands opened by the
    Treaty of Paris were

    • primarily controlled by
    • rich speculators.
  52. Jefferson’s presidency was
    characterized by
    • smaller government, a
    • decrease in the national debt, more states’ rights, and an expansive western
    • policy.
  53. The Embargo of 1807

    • an imaginative but naive
    • policy that hurt Americans more than anyone else.
  54. The Battle of New Orleans
    had which of the following impacts on the United States?
    • undercut the Harford
    • convention’s demands for constitutional revision.
  55. The Russ-Bagot Treaty
    included which of the following stipulations?
    • limitations of American and
    • British naval forces on the Great Lakes

  56. The Adams-Onis Treaty
    transferred which of the following Spanish colonies to the United States?
  57. The policy declared by
    President Monroe regarding the Western Hemisphere became known as the
    Monroe Doctrine.
  58. The New South in the early
    1800s was characterized by
    • a high geographical
    • mobility and a desire to make the West into a slave society.
  59. The domestic slave trade

    • the transportation
    • and economic system that brought black slaves to the New South.
  60. The federal government
    played a major role in the expansion of slavery to the New South through all of
    the following waysexcept
    • investing in
    • railroads and other industrial development projects in the 1810s.
  61. The domestic slave trade
    impacted African American families by
    • destroying one in
    • four slave marriages.
  62. The gang system of slave
    labor in the New South was characterized by

    • large work crews
    • supervised by a black driver and a white overseer to work on plantations.
  63. All of the following are examples of passive resistance except
    a. slave rebellion.

    b. feigning illness.

    c. losing or breaking tools.

    d. non-compliance with orders.
  64. Where did most free
    southern blacks live?

    in coastal cities
  65. Free blacks faced all of
    the following dangers except

    Indian massacre.
  66. Which of the following free
    black men headed the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC)?
    Richard Allen
  67. In which of the following
    ways did the federal government not restrict free black
    • prohibition against
    • living in the northern states
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