geri 9 eye and ear

  1. Types of Glaucoma
    • Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
    • Normal-Pressure Glaucoma
    • Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma
  2. Glaucoma is when:
    • Central vision is intact
    • Peripheral vision is diminished
  3. Screening for Glaucoma
    • Adults 65+ should be evaluated annually
    • every 6 months and glaucoma controlled by medications
    • A dilated eye examination and tonometry are necessary to diagnose glaucoma
  4. Causes and symptoms of Cataracts
    • Caused by oxidative damage to lens protein and fatty deposits (lipofuscins) in ocular lens
    • Clouding of the ordinarily clear ocular lens (film over the eye)
    • Appearance of halos around objects as light is diffused
    • Blurring, decreased perception of light and color (a yellow tint to most things), and sensitivity to glare
  5. Diabetic Retinopathy
    • Effects of elevated blood sugar caused by diabetes
    • Considered a disease of the retinal microvasculature
    • Characterized by increased vessel permeability
    • Blood and lipid leakage leads to macular edema and hard exudate
    • -- destruction of the retina
  6. Treatment for cataracts
    • implantation of a new lens
    • surgical replacement
  7. Treatment of diabetic retinopathy
    • Constant, strick control of blood glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure
    • laser photocoagulation treatments can halt progression of the disease
    • Annual dilated fundoscopic examination
  8. Macular Degeneration
    • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of legal blindness and the most common visual impairment of individuals over the age of 50
    • Opposite of Gluacoma - loss of central vision, intact peripheral vision!
    • Degenerative eye disease that affects macula
    • Causes the progress loss of central vision, leaving peripheral vision intact
  9. Early signs of macular degeneration
    • Difficulty reading and driving
    • Increased need for bright light
    • colors that appear dim or gray
    • awareness of a blurry spot in the middle of vision
    • HELLA fucking blurry, no treatment to cure it
  10. Types of AMD
    • Wet: More rapid onset of AMD
    • Dry: Slower onset of AMD
  11. Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis (GCA)
    • An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the temporal artery
    • Symptoms include malaise, scalp tenderness, unilateral temporal headache, jaw claudications, throat pain, and sudden vision loss
    • Considered a MEDICAL emergency because of the possibility of ensuing blindness
  12. Detached Retina
    • Can develop in persons with cataracts or recent cataract surgery, trauma, or can occur spontaneously
    • Presents as a curtain coming down over the person's line of vision
    • Requires immediate emergency treatment
  13. Dry Eye
    Changes in mucin-secreting cell necessary for surface weting, in lacrimal glands, or in meibomian glands that secrets surface oil
  14. Tinnitus
    • Perception of sound in the absence of acoustic stimulus
    • Ringing
    • buzzing
    • hissing
    • whisteling
    • crickets
    • bells
    • roaring
    • clicking
    • pulsation
    • humming
    • swishing
    • Could be problems with the head instead of ear. Very debilitating. High suicide rate.
  15. Tinnitus assessment
    • Pulsatile or nonpulsatile
    • Subjective or objective
    • Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire
  16. Treatment for Tinnitus (trial)
    • Transtympanal electrostimulation
    • Iontophoresis
    • Biofeedback
    • Tinnitus masking with alternative sound production (white noise)
    • Dental treatment
    • Cochlear implants
    • heading aids
  17. Prelingual Deafness
    • Often learn audible speech and/or sign language and lip reading very well
    • Reading and writing skills may be impaired
    • Communication can also be comprised for those dependent on visual cues when vision changes occur
  18. Implications for Gerontological Nursing and Healthy aging of ear problems
    • Must be knowledgeable about the impact of:
    • Hearing and vision changes on the functional abilities and quality of life or older adults
    • Vision and hearing assessment
    • Prevention and treatment of disease affecting vision and hearing
    • effective communication techniques
    • ways to assist the individual in adapting to and compensating for these losses.
  19. Application of Maslow's Heirarchy
    • Contribution to challenges at all levels of the hierarchy
    • Meeting needs needs, such as activity and safety and security needs to the higher-levels needs, such as a sense of belonging, feeling of self-esteem, and self-actualization
Card Set
geri 9 eye and ear
geri week 9 eye/ear