1. Soft, high pitch discontinuous popping sounds during inspiration caused by a delayed reopening of the airways.
  2. What is the process of gas exchange from high concentration to low concentration?
  3. A person with increased CO2 in the arterial blood is likely to have an increased area of dead space. Poor gas elimination is indicative of ________.
  4. The measure of the force needed to expand or inflate the lungs is called________.
    Compliance- also considerd the elasticity or expandability
  5. Hemoptysis is coughing up of_______.
  6. Orthopnea is difficulty breathing while______.
    Laying horizontal. (however the medsurg book states any position except sitting upright)
  7. Respiration is the ______ exchange and ________ is the movement of air in and out of the respiratory system.
    • Gas
    • Ventilation
  8. A low pitched wheezing or snoring sound associated with partial airway obstruction is called ________.
  9. In this disease the aveolar macrophages become altered and increase the risk for respiratory infections.
    Chronic Bronchitis
  10. In normal breathing the volume of air inspired and expired with each breath is______.
    Tidal volume
  11. Wheezing is the contiuous musical sounds associated with airway ________.
  12. The normal adult tidal volume is _____mL.
    500 or 5-10mL/kg.
  13. Cells that play a key role in the inflammatory response of asthma are:
    • Neutrophils
    • Esosinphils
    • lymphocytes
  14. Residual volume can be increased with obstructive disease. (RV)The normal adult value is _______mL.
  15. Vital capacity is the _______ volume of air exhaled from the point of maximum inspiration.
  16. A disease that has air flow limitations,is progressive and has an abnormal inflammatory response is called______.
  17. The presence of cough and sputum production for at least 3 months in two consecutive years is called______ _______.
    Chronic Bronchitis
  18. Smoke or environmental pollutants cause ______ cells to hypersecrete and increase in number. (chronic Bronchitis
  19. Overdisteded aveoli are responsible for poor O2 and Co2 gas exchange in this disease.
  20. _______ sided heart failure can be a complication of emphysema
  21. S.pneumoniae is most prevalent in the winter and spring and causes pneumonia most often in those younger than _____.
    • 60 y/o w/o comorbidities
    • 60 and older w/ comorbidities
  22. S/S of this disease come on gradual and include: low grade fever, cough, night sweats, fatigue and weight loss.
  23. Name the two types of emphysema.
    • Panlobular
    • Centrilobular
  24. Mycoplasma pneumonia is most common in ______ children and ______ adults.
    • older children
    • younger adults.
  25. What are the Chronic obsrtuctive pulmonary diseases?
    • COPD-
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Emphysema
  26. Name the 3 primary symptoms of COPD.
    • Chronic cough
    • Sputum production
    • Dyspnea with exertion
  27. An airborn infectious disease that is the leading cause of death from infectious disease in the world.
    Pulmonary Tuberculosis
  28. T or F- TB is on the rise due to poverty, malnutrition, substandard housing, increased HIV + population and inadequate healthcare.
  29. Chemical mediators that perpetuate the inflammatory response in asthma are:
    • histamine
    • bradykinin
    • prostaglandins
    • leukotrienes
  30. The initial TB infection happens ___ to___ weeks after exposure.
  31. ________ is the stongest predisposing factor for asthma.
  32. In TB granulomas are surrounded by macrophages that form a protective wall. They are turned into a fibrous tissue mass that becomes ______ forming a _______ mass that becomes calcified forming a scar, then becoming dormant.
    • necrotic
    • cheesy
  33. (asthma) An increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level is caused by ______ stimulation and causes ________.
    • Beta
    • Bronchodialation
  34. reactivation of TB occurs when _______ tubercle ulcerates infecting the surrounding bronchi and spreading the disease.
  35. A chronic inflammatory disease plagued by hyperresponsiveness, mucosal edema, and mucus productionn is called________.
  36. S/S of asthma include:
    • cough
    • chest tightness
    • wheezing
    • dyspnea
  37. The difference between asthma and COPD is that asthma is largely _____.
  38. Common triggers for asthma include:
    • Airway irritants
    • exercise
    • stress or emotional upset
    • sinusitis with postnasal drip
    • medications
    • viral respiratory infections
    • gastroesophageal reflux
  39. Three factors that lead to obstruction in asthma is _______of the membranes, _______spasm, and increased ______production.
    • swelling
    • broncho
    • mucus
  40. (asthma) Bronchoconstriction occurs when (cAMP) cyclic adenosine monophosphate is ________ due to _______ stimulation.
    • decreased
    • alpha
  41. T or F
    Asthma can be caused by circadian variations that influence airway receptor thresholds.
  42. Bacterial(typical), atypical, anaerobic/cavitary and opportunistic are all classifications of ___________.
  43. What are ther more commonly used classifications of pneumonia?
    • (CAP) Community aquired pneumonia
    • Hospital aquired pneumonia (nosocomial)(HAP)
    • Aspiration pneumonia
    • Immunocompromised pneumonia
  44. The acute or chronic closure or collapse of aveoli is called?
  45. Name 4 ways to prevent atelectasis.
    • frequent turning
    • early mobilization
    • expansion of lungs and secretions management
    • deep breathing exercises
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