15.2 vision-related anatomic and other terms

  1. anterior chamber
    space between iris and cornea that contains aqueous humor
  2. aqueous humor
    clear, colorless liquid that fills anterior and posterior chambers of the eye
  3. binocular vision
    the use of both eyes simultaneously so that a single image is seen, permitting stereoscopic perception (compare with diplopia)
  4. blepharon
    eyelid (also called palpebra)
  5. canal of Schlemm
    exit duct for aqueous humor, located in anterior cavity, which keeps intraocular pressure constant under normal conditions
  6. canthus
    angle at either end of slit between eyelids, lateral canthus, and medial canthus (plural canthi)
  7. chiasma
    the crossing of two lines or tracts, as at the optic chiasma (also spelled chiasm)
  8. choroid
    coat, located between the sclera and the retina, with cells filled with melanin, whose posterior part is thin membrane with rich vascular layer
  9. cilia
  10. ciliary body
    thickened extension of choroid from visual layer to iris, consisting of ciliary processes and muscles, assisting in accommodation and secreting aqueous humor
  11. cones
    specialized neuorephithelial cells of retina, which serve as color and fine-detail receptors of vision
  12. conjunctiva
    mucous membrane lining the inner surfaces of the eyelids and the anterior part of the sclera
  13. cornea
    transparent structure that forms anterior part of external tunic of eye
  14. corpora nigra
    black masses at edge of iris in horses and ruminants
  15. extrinsic muscles
    six slender muscles attaching outside of eyeball to bones of orbit, acting together to move eyeballs
  16. fornix
    an archlike structure or space, such as the conjuctival fornix, where the palpebral conjunctiva curves onto the surface of the eye to become the bulbar conjunctiva
  17. fovea
    depressed area in center of macula of retina, with no rods and greatest concentration of cones, producing area of clearest vision
  18. iris
    most anterior portion of vascular layer of eye, a doughnut-shaped, pigmented ring of muscles that regulates size of pupil
  19. lacrimal glands
    organs of secretion of tears, which cleanse and lubricate conjunctiva
  20. lens
    transparent part of eye, directly behind iris, that focuses light rays on retina (also called crystalline lens)
  21. levator palpebrae muscles
    muscles that raises the upper lid
  22. limbus
    corneoscleral junction
  23. lysozyme
    an enzyme with antibacterial properties; found in salica, tears, sweat, and other body fluids
  24. macula
    yellow spot near center of back of retina with central depression, the fovea (also called macula lutea)
  25. meibomian glands
    sebaceous glands on margins of each eyelid
  26. monocular vision
    the situation in animals whose eyes are placed on the sides of their heads; the visual fields of the eyes do not overlap sufficiently to give good depth perception
  27. nasolacrimal duct
    the tubular structure that drains tears from the lacrimal puncta of the eyelids to the nasal cavity
  28. nictitating membrane (nictitans)
    third eyelid, complete in birds, incomplete in many mammals; originates at medial canthus and contains cartilage, lacrimal tissue and lymphatic tissue
  29. optic
    term referring to eye
  30. orb
  31. orbit
    bony eye socket that contains eye
  32. palpebra
    eyelid (plural: palpebrae)
  33. posterior chamber
    space between iris and lens that contains aqueous humor
  34. pupil
    an opening in the iris that changes in size to regulate the amount of light entering the eye; its shape varies between species
  35. refracting media
    transparent tissues and fluids in eye through which light passes and by which it is refracted and brought to focus
  36. retina
    innermost, nervous tissue or sensory layer of three coats of eyeball; contains rods and cones
  37. rods
    highly specialized, cylidric, neuorepithelial cells of retina; react to light but not color and are most sensitive to low light intensity
  38. sclera
    tough white supporting tunic of eyeball
  39. tapetum lucidum
    reflective layer of choroid in most animals
  40. uvea
    term used to include iris, ciliary body, and chorid
  41. vitreous body
    semigelatinous transparent substance that fills membrane-enclosed space between lens and retina.
Card Set
15.2 vision-related anatomic and other terms
15.2 the special senses: sense of vision: vision-related anatomic and other terms