Conquest And Colonization of Latin America Exam 2

  1. "Obedezco pero no cumplo"
    • An official would hold a decree over his head to symbolize his subservience to the law and say “I obey, but do not comply”. It was a tradition in peninsular Spain that allowed for delayed enforcement of a decree while it was appealed to the King. While it was not altogether
    • uncommon for officials to invoke this power, it was most significantly applied the New World by New Spain’s viceroy Antonio de Mendoza in enforcing the New
    • Laws. He knew the laws would be impossible to enforce, as was later evidenced in the rebellion in Peru, and tried to avoid it through this process.
  2. Alcalde
    mayor. An office that could be purchased. Elected each year from town council or cabildo.
  3. Aleijadinho
    (1730-1814) famous Brazilian mulatto artisan from Ouro Preto during the gold rush. He is most famous for his sculptures that adorn the church in Ouro Preto, though he also“Aleijadinho” means “little cripple”, a nickname given to him because of a debilitating disease (possibly leprosy) he acquired.
  4. Amalgamation
    • A method of refining silver ore by combining mercury with ore. It allowed for lower grade silver ore to yield productive results because less of it was burned off in the smelting process. This technology led to a boom in production at Potosí and the downfall of independent yanacona mining there. First implemented at Pachuca in 1554 by Bartolomé de Medina. Amalgamation made sites such as Huancavelica and Almadén
    • vital for the colonial economy because they supplied the refineries with mercury. It also had profound implications for the native populations. As a result of the profits made possible by amalgamation, viceroy Francisco de
    • Toledo instituted the Potosí mita in 1570. This would lead to the disruption indigenous social structure and economy, affecting the colony on nearly every
    • level. It also provided a market for products from obrajes in places like Tucumán.
  5. Audiencia
    • A high court or group of judges sent over by the
    • crown to monitor things. Multiple audiencias existed within viceroyalties. Audiencias also helped to govern. In cities where viceroys resided, he was the president
    • of the audiencia. The audiencias would advice he viceroy. They would reach agreements or acuerdos. This served to limit the power of the viceroy. The members of the audiencias are creoles
  6. Babylonian Captivity
    • 1580-1640) Following the crisis of Portuguese
    • succession, Charles V (I am pretty sure this is Phillip II. Charles Dies in 1558) of Spain became monarch of Portugal. Although Portugal was kept as a
    • separate Kingdom within Charles V’s dominions, the Portuguese felt slighted. One consequence of the preservation of Portugal as an independent kingdom was
    • that the colonial administration in Brazil remained unaltered during this period. Another was that Portugal was tied to Spanish foreign policy, entangling them in the 80 years war with the Dutch and a deterioration of their
    • relations with England. As a result of their new alignment in international relations, both the French and the Dutch attempted to take control of parts of northern Brazil.
  7. Bandeirantes
    • Brazillian explorers/trappers that took the flag or “bandeira” into the interior, conquering and settling. They were mostly
    • concentrated in the area of Sao Paulo. Also known as
  8. Bozal or Bossale
    slaves in Brazil that were born in Africa. More likely to rebel.
  9. Cabildo
    • Town councils in Spain and Spanish America. Councilmen
    • known as “regidores” The cabildo is chosen. One of the 8 is elected on a yearly basis as alcalde
  10. Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora
    • (1645-1700) Intellectual born in New Spain who
    • helped establish the legend of the Virgin of Guadelupe by documenting (mapping the location of) her appearance. As royal geographer he created the first map
    • of all of New Spain, as well as other important maps of Florida and Louisiana. He was the first Spaniard to begin archaeological excavation at Teotihuacan.
  11. Casa de la Contratación
    • Spanish royal institution that controlled
    • trade between Spanish America and the peninsula. Based in Seville. Created in 1503 by Isabella. Controlled the distribution of the official Spanish map. Under the Bourbons its powers were weakened. It was moved to Cadiz in 1717 and finally abolished under Charles IV in 1790.
  12. Casta
    • Is a Portuguese and Spanish term used in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries mainly in Spanish America to describe any non-white who was not clearly Indian (including blacks) in the post-Conquest period. (Used to describe and classify the people as a whole due to mixed
    • ancestry)
  13. Charles II
    Last in line for the Hapsburg kings of Spain. He did not have any children so the bourbon dynasty took over rule.
  14. Charles V
    • Ruler of Spain, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire 1516-1556. Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabel - son of crazy Queen Juana. United the crowns of Castile and Aragon, as well as the Spanish and Holy Roman thrones overall. He created many of the colonial institutions of Latin America. Outfitted Magellan’s expedition. Notable in his efforts to counter the
    • Protestant Reformation, such as for supporting the newly formed Society of Jesus and leading Catholic troops to victory over Protestant dissidents during the Holy Roman Empire’s internal religious war.
  15. Colonia do Sacramento
    Founded in 1680 by Portugal as Colónia do Sacramento, the colony was later disputed by the Spanish who settled on the opposite bank of the river at Buenos Aires. The colony was conquered by José de Garro in 1680, but returned to Portugal the next year. Oldest town in Uruguay. (wikipedia)
  16. Compadrazgo
    Godparenthood, gave people more connections to each other.
  17. Corregidor
    Provinicial leader, roughly the same as gobernador and alcalde mayor Was the one who implemented repartos de comercio. The postion was usually bought.
  18. Council of the Indies
    Starts as a subcommittee of council of Castille. Advisory body of the new world for the crown. 12-19 counselors. 2 salas: Peru and new Spain, each had a fiscal (attorney) who prepared the advice in a “summary” that would be given to the crown. Later made decisions because the king would not or could not.
  19. Creole
    Creole slaves were born in Brazil, as opposed to Bossale slaves that were born in Africa. They were more likely to speak Portuguese, more integrated into the colonial system, less likely to rebel/run away.
  20. Donatary Captaincies
    Jurisdictions. 15 total, extending from the coast to the interior (up to the treaty of tordesillas line) The king gave out 12 to 12 men (investors), they had to finance things for themselves, then they could set up colonies in the jurisdictions. The king retained power of life and death and could also collect taxes. This system was like a mix of feudalism and capitalism. The investors could also give out sub-grants
  21. Fleet System
    boats travelled in fleets for protection and insurance. There were three fleets, the Galeones, Flota, and Manila Galeons (goes from Acapulco to Phillipines)
  22. Flota
    • Boats of a fleet that Left form Seville, went
    • to caribbean and then on to Veracruz to sell their goods in a fair to the merchants for the viceroyalty of mexico (new Spain).
  23. Francis Drake
    • War broke out between Spain and England in 1585. Drake sailed to the New World and sacked the ports of Santo Domingo and Cartagena in present-day Colombia. On the return leg of the voyage, he captured the Spanish fort of San Augustín in Spanish Florida. These acts encouraged Philip II of Spain to order planning for an invasion of England. Then, as
    • vice admiral of English fleet defeated the Spanish Armada, 1588, that was coming to perform the invasion. (wikipedia)
  24. Francisco de Toledo
    5th viceroy of Peru. Appointed such by Phillip II. First successful viceroy of Peru and brings some stability. Implements reducciones, visita general, mita to work Potosi and huancavelica, captures and kills last inca ruler Tupac Amaru.
  25. Galeones
    From Seville to Caribbean then Columbia and Panama. Held “fair” in Panama to sell goods that went to Peru. 1 fleet each year. Viceroy or Peru then traded these goods (monopoly in S. America)
  26. Gracias al Sacar
    Obtained from the crown - required people to treat you as if you’re of a certain race
  27. Hijo Natural
    child born outside of wedlock to parents who could be married
  28. Honor
    what others thought of you-reputation. Wealth didn’t automatically confer honor.
  29. Huancavelica
    mercury mine of Peru viceroyalty. Mercury was needed in the extraction process of silver (amalgamation).
  30. Inquisition
    we all know this
  31. Juana Inés de la Cruz
    Brilliant poet and nun. She became a nun in order to continue learning. Many consdered her a heretic. She devoted her life to service.
  32. Limpieza de Sangre
    Was the tradition of proving your status by demonstrating that your ancestors had been christians and that you were not a new convert, it was using geneology to prove superiority and that no new converts (jew, muslim) was in your blood.
  33. Manoel de Nóbrega
    Jesuit Priest in Brazil. Came to teach indians and protect them with 4 other priests.
  34. Manumission
    legal process of freeing a slave, 18th century, coartacao (conditional freedom offered to slaves)
  35. Martin Afonso de Sousa
    First official Portugese expedition to mainland Brazil. Helps drive out the French in Brazil. (1530)
  36. Media Anata
    A tax...or a gift..Half of first years income of office holder as thanks to the king for position to crown. Payment to king for naming. half of your annual salary your first year
  37. Mercantilism
    “Retaining wealth” for the empire by ensuring “positive trade” from colonies. Essentially ruling the colony so that all benefits go to mother country and the crown. (I believe...)
  38. Mestizo
    offspring of white and indian parents
  39. Minas Gerais
    Means “General Mines” in portuguese, it is a State in South East Brazil that was known for its large mines.
  40. Mita
    Andean labor draft, legal servitude
  41. Mulatto
    offspring of white and black parents
  42. Oidor
    member judge of an audiencia - a “hearer”
  43. Pachamama
    Earth mother in Incan religion
  44. Pedro Alvares Cabral
    He discovered Brazil 1500
  45. Philip II
    • second king of the Hapsburg line after Charles
    • V. ruled 1555-1598 son of Charles V. Charles’ empire had split between Phillip and Charles’ brother. Phillip received the Spanish half. He was a contemporary of Queen Elizabeth. He was the first Spanish ruler of Portugal starting in 1580 due to the death of Sebastian who had no heir in Portugal. Wants more control so
    • decides that regidor must be chosen by him amd then bought. Then the person could pay so heir could have spot.
  46. Philip III
    • 1578-1621) Generally incompetent leader at the
    • height of Spanish power. The decline of the Spanish Empire can be traced to his economic policies. Not as involved in running the empire as his father. Brought
    • Spain into the Thirty Years War. His mismanagement of the Dutch Revolt racked up huge debts. By relying on the corrupt Duke of Lerma he made many more
    • foreign relation faux pas. He is however, generally credited as a moral and pious man.
  47. Piet Heyn
    Dutch privateer who famously captured the entire Spanish treasure fleet (38 tons of silver) in 1628. He also led the Dutch invasions of Bahia (captancy in Brazil)
  48. Portobelo
    • Panamanian port where the Galeones fleet from Spain put in. They unloaded their cargoes, which were then bought by the “consulado” monopoly merchants from Peru to haul overland, be loaded on ships,
    • shipped down to Lima, unloaded, and distributed further from that hub. This also worked in reverse. So, any goods coming into or out of South America would pass
    • through Portobelo. Captured by the British briefly in 1739 as part of a wider campaign that led to “comercio libre” trade reforms.
  49. Potosí
    • Bolivia. Very rich in Silver - mountain made of silver - discovered in 1545 - nobody living there, it was too high for human habitation. most famous silver mine in
    • history, in the territory that Almagro was supposed to have. Forced Indian labor used to extract silver from Potosi under the mita system.
  50. Quilombo
    Runaway slave colonies in Brazil. The most famous of these was Palmares, which repelled 17 different punitive expeditions between the Portuguese and Dutch. Began around 1600 and was conquered in 1697. The Spanish equivalent were called palenques.
  51. Reducción
    an area of land or place where the Spanish would gather indigenous groups and try to assimilate them to Spanish culture
  52. Regidor
    Member of cabildo (councilmen)
  53. Reparto de Comercio
    indians used (and abused) to sell goods of the corregidor. (forced to buy the goods even if they didn’t need them)
  54. Residencia
    an inquiry made by the official successor to prevent corruption
  55. Royal Fifth
    crown entitled to one-fifth of everything from colonies
  56. Salvador da Bahia
    First colonial capital of Brazil. Main sea port in early colonial days. Seat of first catholic bishopric in Brazil. First capital of Brazil.
  57. Sebastian
    king of Portugal who died in battle without an heir in 1578. His uncle first becomes King but then the power goes to Phillip II
  58. Taki Onqoy
    revival of indigenous huaca worship against catholicism in the viceroyalty of Peru
  59. Tomé de Sousa
    Sent over by the King in 1549 to be the first governor of Brazil. He takes up headquarters in Salvador (in Bahia, one of the donatary capitancies) Bahia then became the political center of Brazil.
  60. Treaty of Metheun
    • The Methuen Treaty was an offensive military and commercial treaty between Portugal and England signed in 1703 as part of the War of the Spanish Succession.
    • tribute. The Treaty stipulated that no tax could be charged for Portuguese wines exported to England or English textiles exported to Portugal, regardless of the geopolitical situation of each of the two nations (wikipedia)
  61. Tribute
  62. Viceroy
    chief military/legislative officer. Vice patron of the church and in charge of judicial system.Reported to the council of the indies. Embodiment of the king. “Vice king”
  63. Visita
    a judge would be sent to a viceroyalty or province to inquire and see what was happening. A way to hold them accountable and oversee the area. One way the crown tried to stop corruption. This judge was expensive. Who would pay him?
  64. War of the Emboabas
    a civil war that took place between the Paulistas and the Emboabas (poltical outsiders), or the people from Portugal who came over to Brazil to speculate in the gold fields.
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Conquest And Colonization of Latin America Exam 2
Conquest And Colonization of Latin America Exam 2