Constitutes 55% of Blood, Approx. 8% protein (Albumin,globulins and fibrinogen), Contains clotting factors
=plasma minus the clotting factors
3 major functions of blood:
- 1) Transportation
- 2) Waste Removal
- 3) Regulate heat and fluid volume
45% of blood is made up of formed elements. What are the three major elements?
- Leukocytes (WBCs)
One of Albumins greatest functions is what?
balancing osmotic pressure
Globulins do what?
Transport ions, hormones and lipids
Plasma cells produce…
Immunoglobulins (Ig) which are antibodies
Platelets are also known as…
What is a normal PCV range in domestic animals?
Average size of an erythrocyte is:
5 um diameter in domestic animals (7.5 um in dog, 3-4 um in goat)
The immature form of an RBC is called a:
Why look at blood smears?
To see cell size, shape and staining affinity
abnormal variation in size of RBCs
Define Poikilocytosis: What species is poikilocytosis normal in?
Variation in shape of RBCs, Goats and deer
What is the avg. lifespan for an RBC?
120 days, 90% phagocytosed by spleen, liver and bone marrow, 10% broken down in blood
The greater surface area of the RBC helps to enhance what?
Abnormal notchings around edges of RBS (spiked appearance)
Define Rouleau Formation:
Stacking of RBC's, common in the equine
lighter central area of RBC seen in cats and dogs
RBC's are anucleated in all species except in…
Birds and reptiles
A larger than normal RBC
RBC smaller than normal for that species
Increased Hct, RBC's and Hb
Decreased cytoplasmic staining and increased pallor
Define Hb E:
Define Hb F:
Define Hb A:
Hemoglobin of adults
Life stages of an Erythrocyte:
Proerythrocyte to basophilic erythroblast to polychromatophilic erythroblast to orthochromatophilic erythroblast to reticulocyte to MATURE RBC
What is the order of frequency for Leukocytes in the blood?
- Neutrophils ------- Thousands
- Lymphocytes ----- Thousands
- Monocytes -------- Hundreds
- Eosinophils ------- Hundreds
- Basophils ---------- Scores
What are the four types of granulocytes?
Basophils, Banded Neutrophils (immature), Segmented Neutrophils (mature), and eosinophils
What are the two types of Agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
Key characteristics of Neutrophils:
- -Associated with BACTERIAL infections
- -2-5 nuclear lobes
- -9-12 um in diameter
- -named for lack in cytoplasmic staining
- -Most common WBC in Dogs, Cats, and Horses
- -Phagocytic in blood or CT
- -Short lifespan 95-10 hrs in blood, 1-4 days in tissue)
What's the most common WBC in dogs cats and horses?
What's the most common WBC in ruminants and birds?
What WBC is associated with becterial infections?
What WBC is associated with parasites and/or allergic reactions?
What WBC is associated with allergies?
Eosinophil granules contain what? Eosinophils also contain…
- MBP (Major Basic Protein) enzyme (hydrolyzing)
- Eosinophils also contain, ecp (eosinophilic cationic protein), epo (eosinophilic peroxidase), and edn (eosinophilic derived neurotoxin)
Key characteristics of Eosinophils:
- -motile, capable of diapedeis (movement through capillary walls)
- - 12-15 um in diameter
- - allergy and parasite reactions
- - common in dermis, bronchial tree, vagina, uterus
- - 2-4% of WBCs
- - eosinophilic granules
- - bi-lobed nucleus
Name three distinguishing characteristics of Horse Blood:
- 1) Rouleau formation
- 2) Bright red and raspberry shaped eosinophils
- 3) No reticulocytes
Name major characteristics of basophils:
- 0-1% or WBCs
- 12-15 um in diameter
- Closely related to Mast cells
- Allergy response!
- Contain histamine and heparin
- Vasodialate and increase vascular permeability
Characteristics of Monocytes:
- "Garbagemen" of the body
- Phagocytose- clean whatever tissue they have entered and differentiate ex: Kupffer cells in the liver, microgliocytes in the CNS, etc.
- 3-5% of WBCs
- Large pale nucleus usually indented on one side
- 12-20 um in diameter- LARGEST
- Lysosomes in cytoplasm
T/F You can differentiate T and B lymphocytes histologically.
Eosinophilic Stimulating Factor- stimulates histamine and heparin release from basophils which leads to anaphylaxis
What are the contents of Neutrophils?
Lysozomes, lactoferrin, phagocytins, and peroxidase
Major characteristics of Lymphocytes:
- 20-60% WBC
- Round, nucleus, round cell and thin rim of cytoplasm
- T and B cells (90% T)
Define T cells:
produce cell-mediated immune responses
Define B cells:
produce humoral-antibody responses
T/F Most lymphocytes continuously recirculate between blood and lymph
Sticky, can contract as part of clot formation, contain actin and myosin, originate from megakaryocytic
What is the only blood cell to recirculate?
A collection of modified macrophages usually surrounded by a layer of lymphocytes
Avian blood has:
- Nucleated RBC's
- Oval shaped RBC's
- Live longer than Mammalian RBCs
What type of Lymphocyte differentiates into plasma cells when stimulated? What does the plasma cell produce?
B lymphocytes can differentiate into plasma cells to secrete antibodies
Natural Killer cells originate from what?
Nucleated platelets found i birds, fish and reptiles
Name the sites of PreNatal hematopoeisis:
embryonic yolk sac, liver, spleen, bone marrow
Name the site of PostNatal hematopoeisis:
Interleukins are produced by…
T lymphocytes. Interleukins are responsible for cell differentiation during hematopoeisis
CSFs are produced by who?(Colony Stimulating Factors)
Endothelial cells, macrophages and fibroblasts. CSFs are Erythropoeitic Growth Factors
In birds, the most abundant blood cell type is what? 2nd most abundant?
- #1- Lymphocytes
- #2- Heterophils (pseudoeosinophils)