What is the pathway for blood in the heart?
- Enters vena cava (upper and lower), goes to
- right atrium
- tricuspid valve
- right ventricle
- pulmonary trunk
- pulmonary veins
- left atrium
- bicuspid valve
- left ventricle
- aortic valve
- everywhere else!
What are the three walls of the heart?
- Epicardium (visceral layer of serous pericardium)
- Myocardium (middle layer of cardiac muscle)
- Endocardium (inner layer of epithelial and CT that lines the inside of the heart)
What are the three layers of blood vessels?
- Tunica intima (endothelium; inner layer of squamous epithelial tissue)
- Tunica media (middle layer of smooth muscle and elastic CT)
- Tunica adventitia (outer layer of CT)
The first part of the aorta (ascending) gives rise to the right and left...
The descending aorta in the thorax is called the...
thoracic aorta and gives off numerous branches that supply thoracic wall and organs
What artery travels between the clavicle and first rib to become the axillary artery?
- Subclavian artery
- (second largest artery)
The common iliac arteries then divide into...
internal and external iliac arteries
What forms the femoral triangle of the upper thigh? What bisects the triangle?
- Inguinal ligament (superiorly)
- Sartorius (laterally)
- Adductor longus (medially)
- The femoral artery bisects the femoral triangle
The subclavian and internal jugular veins join to form the brachiocephalic veinswhich merge in the mediastinum to form the...
Superior vena cava
What is the longest vein in the body?
- Great saphenous vein
- Travels from the medial side of the foot, anterior to the malleolus and along the medial leg and thigh to drain into the femoral leg
What is tissue fluid?
Blood plasma consisting of mostly water, nutrients, dissolved gases and very small proteins leaks out of capillaries and fills spaces between cells forming tissues (intersitial spaces)
How does lymph move through the body?
By contraction of skeletal muscles and smooth muscles that line the larger lymphatic vessels
What is a bean-shaped gland that is covered by a CT sheath that extends internally to divide it into compartments that contain dense masses of lymphocytes and macrophages
What happens to bacteria when it enters a lymph node?
They are exposed to lymphocytes and macrophages of the nodules which respond by neutralizing the bacteria
___ consists of nodules of lymphocytes similar to those of lymphnodes; it is responsible for removing foreign particles
White pulp (spleen)
___ contains numerous red blood cells, macrophages and lymphocytes;it is responsible for removing old and decaying RBC's
Red pulp (spleen)
What organ is relatively large in children and starts to shrink after puberty?
The alimentary canal is about 9 meters long and is formed by the (7):
- small intestine
- large intestine
- anal canal
Organs associated with the alimentary canal (4):
- Salivary glands
Where is the esophagus located?
Behind the heart
What organ is a dual gland with both endocrine and exocrine functions?
What are the functions of the liver?
- Metabolic- carb, lipid and protein metabolism
- Stores glycogen, iron and certain vitamins
- Filters blood
- Secretes bile
The ____ functions to store and concentrate bile until it is required by the small intestine for digestion of fatty foods
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
- Duodenum (beginning)
- Jejunum (thicker walls; mostly absorption)
- Ileum (end of SI, attaches to cecum of LI)
What is the major function of the small intestine?
Absorption of nutrients from food
What are the five parts of the large intestine?
- Vermiform appendix
- Anal canal
How does food move through the body?
- Oral cavity
- small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
- large intestine (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon)
What are the functional units of a kidney that filter the bloodand form urine?
Nephrons (located in the renal cortex region)