Aural Rehab Exam 3-Language and Speech of the Deaf and HOH

  1. Definition of Morphology
    study of minimal units of language that are meaningful

    example: plurals, verb tenses, past tense, etc
  2. Definition of Phonology
    study of sound systems used in language
  3. Definition of Pragmatics
    functional use of language
  4. Definition of Semantics
    study of word meanings and word relations
  5. Definition of Syntax
    governs the rules of how words are arranged in sentences
  6. Deteriorated speech signal decreases information regarding...?
    • Form (phonology, syntax, morphology)
    • Context (semantics)
    • Use of language (pragmatics)
  7. What are the three factors that affect language acquisition in children with hearing loss?
    • Degree of loss
    • Age of onset
    • Presence of other disabilities
  8. What percentage of children with hearing loss have other special needs?
  9. Learning disabilities have a negative impact on ...
    auditory perception and linguistic competence on kids with cochlear implants
  10. Four predictors of early expressive language development
    • Child's age
    • Age of identification (hearing loss)
    • Cognitive Status
    • Presence of Additional disabilities
  11. The greater the hearing loss...
    the greater the expected language delay
  12. 3 Key factors that impact speech and language outcomes
    • Increased patient diversity
    • Early intervention
    • Availability of cochlear implants (for more severe hearing losses)
  13. Early intervention is not a strong predictor of ...
    speech intelligibility
  14. Children with HL show greater _____________________ (4 words) than their normal hearing peers.
    physical initiations of conversation

    example: tap shoulder, gestures, facial expressions)
  15. Cochlear implant use:

    Age of implantation is an important indicator in
    normal language development

    (The earlier, the better!)
  16. Children up to the age of ____________ still show improvement, but it is still dependent on the amount of intervention and severity/progression of HL
    5 to 6 years of age (latest age where the auditory pathways still have neuroplasticity)
  17. Language characteristics of a Preschool HOH

    Hearing loss during the critical period of development may deprive the child of ...
    unambiguous auditory and linguistic cues from language models
  18. Language Characteristics of Preschool HOH

    Lack of an auditory signal may severely compromise development of...
    semantic, syntactic. morphologic, pragmatic and phonologic aspects

    -also increases the chance of reading and academic difficulties
  19. Degree of loss can change a parents communication style.

    Mothers of deaf children are LESS likely to use:
    • verbal praise
    • ask for opinions
    • ask for suggestions
    • use questions
  20. Degree of loss can change a parents communication style.

    Mothers of deaf children are MORE likely to use:
    • Disagreement
    • Tension
    • Antagonism
    • Gives more suggestions
  21. You should focus on _______________-centered intervention
    Family-centered intervention. If they don't like what you're doing, they won't help.
  22. Parents of deaf children may not use as much oral communication, but they use just as much if not more of other forms of communication, such as:
    • functional adaptations
    • visual communication
    • tactile attention-getting strategies
  23. What is schema?
    Schema is considered the language processing and planning that is developed through everyday interactions.
  24. Early language development is established through:
    use of daily routines in the child's life.
  25. HOH/Deaf Children may hear __________ to _____________ of everyday conversation
    little to none (unless it's directed towards them)
  26. Children with HI often have limited schemata for 2 reasons
    • limited access to the language used by parents and peers during daily routines
    • miss out on incidental learning opportunities
  27. Semantic
    word meaning/word relations
  28. Pragmatic
    functional use of language
  29. Children with HI exhibit a full range of pragmatic functions, but ________ ____________ _____________ using nonverbal and verbal communication
    limited semantic functions
  30. HOH children showed more verbal communication than ________
    the children who were deaf
  31. Early intervention is before age.....
  32. Advantages of early identification for HOH children at 6 months to age 3
    • Showed better language comptenence as a whole
    • Early identified kids, even w lower cognitive function, achieved essential the same language levels as late-identified children with higher functioning cognitive skills
  33. Lexical-Semantic Skills-School Age HOH
    • May vary from mild to profound delay
    • reduced vocab is common with hearing loss
    • severe delays in the acquisition of lexical-semantic skills were observed across all age groups from 5 to 20 year olds.
  34. Syntactic-Morphologic Skills-School Age HOH
    a delay in lexical-semantic skills will also transfer into a delay of syntactic-morphologic skills

    • restricted knowledge of word classes (noun/verb usage)
    • syntactic delay
    • restricted knowledge of syntax
    • deviant syntax with profound hearing impairment (word order, word endings, etc)

    Children who are HI have substantial difficulties with more complex, subtle aspects of syntax
  35. Pragmatic Skills of School-Age HOH
    Many children with HL have difficulties with conversational turntaking, topic initiations and maintenance.

    those skills progress as they get older, but are developed at a slower rate depending on age of identification and age of intervention.
  36. Phonological awareness
    a precursor to reading ability and is defined as the ability to recognize that words consisted of individual syllables and phonemes
  37. Prelingual deafness may inhibit _____
    phonological awareness. possibly due to limited exposure.
  38. Language Assessment for School Age HOH

    3 areas of testing
    • Communication checklists
    • formal language tests-most testing is normed for normal hearing children.
    • communicating/language sample analyses
  39. Conditions for language evaluation of HOH school age kids
    A listening/function check of HA's/CI's should be performed before any evaluation.

    optimize the test environment to reduce noise and distractions

    when giving oral instructions/materials, allow the child full access to speechreading skills
  40. Communication/Language Management (School age HOH)

    Carney and Moeller's Treatment Goals for Language Development of Deaf Children
    • Enhanced parent communication
    • understanding of increasingly complex concepts and discourse
    • acquisition of lexical and word knowledge
    • development of verbal reasoning skills
    • enhanced self-expression
    • development of narrative skills
  41. The primary goal of programs for communication/language management should be...
    exposure to the child's everyday communication functions
  42. Creation of incidental learning in therapy involves facilitation of
    a wide range of every day events and reasons how to communication about them.

    -it is important for clinicians etc to facilitate rather than directly teach language targets and forms
  43. Communication/Language Management

    Focus should be on...
    real world situations, not unrelated sentences or words in insolation without any pragmatic or semantic context
  44. Developing conversation skillls
    approaches to encourage the child to practice as a conversation partner learning how to initiate, take turns, and end conversations
  45. Recasting
    • Whent he child uses incomplete or inappropriate forms during conversation, the adult recasts the utterance, managing the child's meaning but providing the appropriate form
    • Example: daddy eated cookie. Yes, Daddy ate the cookie.
Card Set
Aural Rehab Exam 3-Language and Speech of the Deaf and HOH
Aural Rehab Exam 3