Chapter 11 Psych

  1. Developmental Psychology
    the study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social behavior over one life span
  2. Zygote
    conception to two weeks
  3. Embryo
    two weeks to two months; internal organs begin to form
  4. Fetus
    two months until birth
  5. Teratogens
    environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus
  6. Synaptic Pruning
    a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved and those that are not are lost
  7. Critical Periods
    biologically determined time periods for the development of specific skills
  8. Sensitive Periods
    biologically determined time periods where specific skills develop most easily
  9. Attachment
    a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances
  10. Imprinting
    The first adult that an animal (non-human) sees which they follow around and become attached to
  11. Secure Attachment
    attachment style for a majority of infants who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation
  12. avoidant attachment
    attachment style which infants ignore their caregiver when he or she returns after a brief separation
  13. anxious-ambivalent attachment
    attachment style in which infants become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject the caregiver when he or she returns
  14. disorganized attachment
    attachmen style in which infants give mixed responses when their caregiver leaves and then returns from a short absence
  15. Orienting Reflex
    humans' tendency to pay more attention to new stimuli than to stimuli to which they have become habituated
  16. Infantile Amnesia
    the inability to remember events from early childhood
  17. Piaget's Stages of Development
    Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operation, and formal operation
  18. Assimiliation
    the process by which a new experience is placed into an existing schema
  19. accomodation
    the process by which a schema is changed to incorporate a new experience that does not easily fit into an existing schema
  20. Sensorimotor Stage
    0-2, infants acquire information about the world through their sense and respond reflexively
  21. Object Permanence
    the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen
  22. Preoperational Stage
    2-7; children think symbolically about objects, but reason is based on appearance rather than logic
  23. Concrete Operational Stage
    7-12; children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that are reversible
  24. Formal Operational Stage
    12+; the ability to think abstractly and to formulate and test hypotheses through deductive logic
  25. Theory of Mind
    the term used to describe the ability to explain and predict other people's behavior as a result of recognizing their mental state
  26. Precoventional
    earlist level of moral development, in which self-interest determines what is moral
  27. Conventional
    middle stage of moral development; rules and the approval of others determines what is moral
  28. Postconventional
    high stage of moral development; decisions about morality depend on abstract principles
  29. Telegraphic Speech
    the tendency for children to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings but follow a logical syntax
  30. Social Development
    maturation of skills or abilities that enable people to live in a world with others
  31. Gender Identity
    personal beliefs about whether one is male or female
  32. Gender Roles
    characteristics associated with males and females because of cultural influence or learning
  33. Gender Schemas
    cognitive structures that influence how people perceive the behaviors of females and males
Card Set
Chapter 11 Psych
Chapter 11 Westmont Psychology Test