CHFD 4050 Final

  1. Sexuality
    • Erotic & genital responses produced by the cultural scripts of a society
    • Culturally-specific
    • Norms change over time
    • Basis of procreation & family
  2. Sexual Identity
    • Set of sexual practices & attitudes that leads to the formation in a person's mind of an identity as homo-, hetero- or bisexual
    • Concept didn't exist until the 19th century
  3. Alfred Kinsey
    Sexuality as a continuum
  4. Social Constructivist Perspective of Sexual Identity
    • Our sexual identity is determined by our sexual experiences
    • Queer Theory: The view that sexual life is artificially organized into categories that reflect the power of heterosexual norms
  5. Queer Theory
    • Part of social constructionist perspective
    • The view that sexual life is artificially organized into categories that reflect the power of heterosexual norms
  6. Biological Persepective on Sexual Identity
    • Our sexual identity is determined by our biology
    • Mounting evidence for this theory
    • Hypothalamus differences
    • ”Gay” gene
    • Pheromone studies
    • Arousal
    • Effect of androgens on brain development in utero
  7. Integrative Perspective of Sexual Identity
    Sexual identity is influenced by both social & biological factors
  8. Homogamy (Assortative Mating)
    • Likenesses or similarities among marital or relationship partners
    • We tend to date and marry those who are similar to us sociographically (with respect to age, religion, race/ethnicity, social class, etc.)
  9. Has there ever been arranged marriage in the US before?
  10. US Dating Prior to 18th Century
    • More practical considerations in choosing spouse
    • Subject to parental approval
  11. US Dating: 18th Century
    • Bundling
    • Unmarried man & woman, fully clothed, slept in same bed together
    • Up to the woman to invite a man to bundle or to deny access to bundling; granted only to a favorite lover
    • Could lie in bed together, but sexual activity before marriage was not acceptable
    • Sexual activity would have been hard since all family slept in the same room, but it was managed
  12. 18th Century Premarital Sex
    Premarital conception was 30% in 1770s
  13. US Dating: 19th Century
    • Calling & keeping company
    • Calling: When woman came of proper age, her mother invited young men to call, usuallyin daylight. 1st callings involved visiting with both mother as a chaperone & daughter. Later, mother might hover in adjacent room
    • Keeping Company: Usually was a privilege granted to just one man- woman would not accept other callers; longer periods of time, and often in the evening; sometimes continued after parents went to bed
  14. 19th Century Premarital Sex/Pregnancy
    • Premarital sex was not unheard of
    • 13% of US women born before 1890, and 28% born between 1890 and 1899
    • Premarital pregnancy increased from 10% of babies born in mid-19th century in decades between 1880 and 1910
  15. US Dating: 20th Century
    • Dating & going steady
    • Shifted control to men
    • Working class “dated” first, since with urbanization they had no parlors in which to call on women
    • Family supervision replaced by peer supervision
    • Date required money, which men are more likely to have
    • Initiative & responsibility for date and its financing shifted to men
    • Primary objective by 1930s and 1940s = enjoyment rather than selecting marriage partner
  16. Nonmarital Births
    • Have increased
    • 1960: 5% of births
    • 2002: 34% of births
    • 2007: 39% of births
  17. Why have nonmarital births increased?
    • Later age at first mariage
    • Cohabitation
    • Changed social norms regarding sexuality
  18. Teenage Pregnancy
    • Has decreased since 1960
    • Currently highest among Hispanics
    • 1960: 89 births per 1000 teens (14% of whom were unmarried)
    • 2006: 42 births per 1000 teens (16% of whom were unmarried)
    • SO in 2006, there are less births but more of them are to unmarried teens
  19. Sexually Active Teens & Condom Usage
    • Condom use has increased through the years
    • Most common among black non-hispanic
  20. Sexually Active Teens & Birth Control Pills
    • Females used more often than other genders
    • Less students use them now than in the past (19%)
  21. Teen Dating & Sexual Activity from 1990 to 2006
    • 12th graders are dating less than ever, and the trend is continuing to decrease
    • More 12th graders have had sex than in the past- this trend is continuing
    • 11th graders had had sex in the past, the trend decreased, and now increases again
  22. Teenage Sexual Activity: Types of Sex
    • Oral sex is more popular than vaginal, but vaginal is still common with an average of 49.9% having participated in it
    • Anal sex is also becoming normative (estimates of 11-18% of teens have experienced it)
  23. Adult Sexual Behavior
    • Ages 20-59
    • 96% have had sex
    • 15% abstained until age 21
    • Men median number of sex partners: 7
    • Women median number of sex partners: 4
  24. Marital Status & Frequency of Sex
    • Frequency of sex decreases with age
    • Cohabitors have more sex than other marital statuses
  25. Infidelity Within Marriage: General Opinions
    % agreeing that extramarital sex is “always wrong: or “almost always wrong": 1972: 84% .... 2002: 94%
  26. Infidelity Within Marriage: Frequency
    • Percent of married people who reported having had another sexual partner (other than theirspouse)
    • During marriage: 10% of women, 25% of men
    • During past year: 2% of women, 5% of men
  27. Marriage Rate
    • Declining
    • 84% married in 1930, 49.7% married in 2005
    • 2005- The first time less than a half of US households were married couples
  28. Cohabitation
    • Unmarried couples living together
    • 900% increase since 1970
    • In 2002, 54% of US women ages 19-44 have cohabitated before
  29. Marriage as an Outdated Institution
    10% of Americans think it's outdated, while 34.3% of the French believe it's outdated
  30. Why has Marriage Declined/Cohabitation Increased?
    • More widowed elderly
    • Increased divorce rate
    • Later age at first marriage
    • Increased cohabitation
    • Pursuit of careers
    • Opportunities for women in the workplace
    • Economic changes & recession
    • Contraceptive & fertility technology
    • Changed culture
  31. Characteristics of Cohabitors
    • Tend to have lower incomes & levels of education & are less likely to own a home together
    • Most marriages are now preceded by cohabitation, but more likely with remarriage
    • Most cohabitors are ages 25-44
    • Common on the west coast, New England, and Florida
    • Law prohibits cohabitation in NC, VA, WV, FL, MI, MS, & ND
  32. Current Trends of Childbirth Outside of Marriage
    • Rising
    • 43.1% of opposite-sex cohabiting couples have children under age 18 living with them
  33. Incomplete Institution
    • One in which there is a lack of established social norms
    • ie- Cohabitation
  34. Interrelational Characteristics of Cohabitors
    • More likely to...
    • Have egalitarian gender attitudes (but not really behavior patterns)
    • Be 2-earner couples
    • Keep money separate
    • Experience greater declines in perception of relationship fairness & happiness than married couples
    • Have sex (than married couples)
    • Experience abuse in the relationship
    • Have lower levels of happiness & commitment
    • Have poorer relationships w/ parents
  35. 3 Reasons People Cohabit
    • 1. An alternative way of being single (Pure relationships)
    • 2. A testing ground for marriage
    • 3. An alternative to marriage
  36. Cohabitation & Marital Instability
    • Couples who cohabited before marriage have higher divorce rates than couples who didn't
    • Exceptions/Qualifiers:
    • Those who cohabited only with their future marriage partner alone did not have elevated divorce risk
    • Prior cohabitation has a more negative effect on white women’s marriages than onthose of African American & Mexican American women (Why? Cohabiting whites may cohabit because they are unsure of theirrelationship,
    • whereas structural barriers (ie- lack of money) may more often be the reason that African American & Mexican American women cohabit)
  37. Explanations for Higher Divorce Rate Among Prior Cohabitors
    • Selection Effect: These individuals oriented differently toward marriage to begin with
    • There is something about the experience of cohabting that makes an individual orient differently toward marriage
  38. Marriage is Associated With...
    • Greater economic well-being (levels of both income & wealth)
    • More frequent & satisfying sex
    • Better psychological/mental well-being
    • Lower levels of depression
    • Better physical well-being/health
    • Less likely to engage in risky behaviors (ie- smoking, heavy drinking)
    • More likely to engage in healthful behaviors
    • **Marriage must be safe & happy for the above to be true**
  39. Explanations for Greater Well-Being/Lower Risk-Taking Among Married Individuals
    • Marriage Protection Hypothesis/Experience Hypothesis: There's something about marriage that makes us less likely to engage in risky behavior
    • Selection Process into Marriage- Those who marry were already healthier & less likely to take risks/do unhealthy things
    • Greater Economic Resources- Married individuals tend to have more financial resources, which results in less stress, better access to healthcare, & more resources when stress does exist
  40. Average Age at First Marriage, 1890 to 2007
    • Men: 1890- 26.1 years ; 1960- 22.8 years ; 2007- 27.5 years
    • Women: 1890- 22 years ; 1960- 20.3 years ; 2007: 25.6 years
Card Set
CHFD 4050 Final
CHFD 4050 Final UGA The Family