Aural Rehab Test 3 Visual Stimuli Slides

  1. Visual stimuli play an important role in the how we process speech in what ways (4)
    • 1. Speaker’s mouth movements
    • 2. Facial expressions
    • 3. Hand gestures
    • 4. Physical environment
  2. The _________auditory system seamlessly codes _______ cues along with ______ cues to relay the combined information to the brain
    normal, acoustical, visual
  3. The hearing impaired person is much more dependent on ______ ______for communication due to auditory system impairment
    visual cues
  4. The degree of dependency on visual cues is proportional to the amount of hearing impairment.

    True or False
  5. These groups have two very different communication needs.
    • Hard of Hearing (H.O.H.)
    • Deaf
  6. Manual communication (signing) relies on .......
    the visual system to communicate via special signs and symbols made with the hands and is received and interpreted visually.
  7. Manual Communication (signing) relies primarily on the _______ _______ and communication is dependent on the _____________ and __________ ability to understand the same set of symbols.
    • • visual channel
    • •sender and receiver’s
  8. the listener uses visual cues by observing the speaker’s mouth, facial expressions and hand movements
    Oral Communication

    • •lipreading, visual hearing, visual communication, visual listening or speechreading
    • •Speechreading is the preferred term
  9. Why use the term speechreading?
    Visually follows and takes in as much info as possible using vision as the primary sensory modality for communication
  10. __________ means we are getting information from just the lips.
  11. Four factors that affect speechreading
    • Speaker
    • Signal code
    • Environment
    • Speechreader
  12. Differences among speakers have a _________effect on speechreading than on listening.
  13. Familiarity with the speaker:
    increases speechreading performance
  14. What facilitates better communication when speech reading? (3)
    • Appropriate facial expressions
    • common gestures
    • correct positioning (face to face or 45 degree angle)
  15. What is the best positioning of the face when speech reading?
    Face to face or 45 degree angle
  16. The rate of normal speech may have up to ____ phonemes per second (________ syllables)
    12-15, (4.5-5.9)
  17. The eye is capable of recording only ______ discrete movements per second.
  18. Extremely ________ and __________ speech will also inhibit comprehension.
    slowed and exaggerated
  19. Chewing, smoking, yawning, hands near the mouth and wearing sunglasses also affect speechreading abilities.

    True or False
  20. Speechreading uses visuals to supplement lack of auditory cues by:
    • Maximizing, utilizing and interpreting valuable information dealing with the entire body
    • •Body language, gestures, facial changes and expressions
    • •Combine information with auditory information to utilize all elements
    • •Improve knowledge of language understanding of rules and constraints
    • •Know the topic
  21. Speaker Keys to Allow Better Speechreading
    Slightly slower to normal rate with precise, not exaggerated articulation
  22. Female speakers are harder to speechread than male speakers

    True or False

    (easier to speechread)
  23. Appropriate facial expression and gestures •Ex: “no” is accompanied by a stern facial expression
    Shrugging the shoulders with “I don’t know allows for better speech reading?
    True or False
  24. 3 factors to improve speechreading
    • Speaker awareness of the speechreader Speechreader needs to guide and lead the topic
    • Use residual hearing in combination with speechreading
  25. find the level and amount of voicing that they can use so the patient can pick up a few words without visual cues (cover your mouth, but don’t whisper) is called ?
    Clinical application
  26. The Do NOTs when talking to a speechreader
    • Slow speech down
    • Speak excessively loud
    • Overemphasize articulation
    • Break down sentences into single word utterances (rate and prosody)
  27. Speechreading Factors

    Repair Strategies
    • Ask the speaker to repeat when you don’t understand (no huh or what!)
    • Paraphrase it (say it in a different way)
    • Ask for key words
    • Breakdown a story into a couple of key sentences
  28. unique characteristics of a given phoneme that distinguish one phoneme from another is called.
    Distinctive Features:
  29. _______ _________ are vowels that have the major concentration of acoustic energy found in speech.
    Resonated phonemes
  30. _______ _________ are vowels that have the major concentration of acoustic energy found in speech.
    Resonated phonemes
  31. _______ _________ are vowels that have the major concentration of acoustic energy found in speech.
    Resonated phonemes
  32. _______ _________ are vowels that have the major concentration of acoustic energy found in speech.
    Resonated phonemes
  33. _______ _________ are vowels that have the major concentration of acoustic energy found in speech.
    Resonated phonemes
  34. _______ _________ are vowels that have the major concentration of acoustic energy found in speech.
    Resonated phonemes
  35. ___________ alter the shape and size by different tongue and lip positions.
  36. ___________ _________ are consonants that are primarily responsible for the intelligibility of speech
    Articulated phonemes

    production involves manipulation of various articulators: lips, tongue and teeth
  37. Remember: as the point of articulation moves to the ________ of the mouth, it becomes less visible
    /p/, /t/, /k/
  38. Miller and Nicely’s distinctive features
    • Voicing
    • Nasality
    • Affrication
    • Duration
    • Place of articulation
  39. The number of distinctive visual features is reduced to the shape of the mouth for _____ and the place of articulation for _____________.
    vowels, consonants
  40. a group of phonemes in which each looks alike when spoken.
    • Viseme:
    • A speech sound (phoneme) that has been classified by it’s place of articulation or by the shape of the mouth •Ex: /k/, /g/, and -ing
  41. Combinations of auditory distinctive features are unique to each phoneme.

    True or false

    •Can limit the speechreader to the conclusion that one of a group of sounds was uttered
  42. •Several phonemes yield the same viseme?

    True or False
  43. ______ of the words in conversational speech are indistinguishable _______.
    50%, Visually
  44. __________ are words that look alike when spoken, but sound different.

    •Visually confusable units of speech •Ex: /p/, /b/, /m/
  45. __________ are words that sound and look the same, but are spelled differently.
  46. With __________ _______ there are a limited number of visually distinct patterns that can be made among the English consonants.
    Consonant Visemes
  47. Research estimates vary from ____ viseme groups to ____ viseme groups
    4, 9
  48. The speechreader has an average of a _____ chance of correctly identifying a specific isolated phoneme within any group when relying solely on _______.
    50%, vision
  49. There are _____ visually distinct movements when vowels are produced at a slow rate, pronounced movement and normal rhythm.
  50. The distinct movements drop to ____ when produced in conversational speech.
  51. Vowel visemes fall into two categories when determining visually distinct patterns among English phonemes those 2 categories are?
    • ideal
    • usual
  52. When the speaker provides the listener with essentially perfectly articulated speech that contains maximal visual cues is called?
  53. Ideal visual visemes include:
    • -optimal distance
    • -viewing angle
    • -speech rate and an unobstructed
    • -well lit view of the speaker without auditory or visual distraction
  54. There are ____ total visemes out of about _____ total phonemes.
    14 visemes, 40 phonemes
  55. ________ classified as everyday talking conditions

    ____total visemes out of about ____ total phonemes

    9 visemes, 40 phonemes.
  56. Vowel Visemes

    Under ideal conditions what % of speech is visible?
  57. Vowel Visemes

    Under usual conditions what % of speech is visible?
    10-25% of speech is visible
  58. What ___% of the information regarding consonant sounds provided by audition is available via vision.
  59. Very few speech sounds are not very visible when they are produced.

    True or False

    Many speech sounds are not very visible when they are produced.
  60. Features like ________are not visible at all.
  61. ___% of the English phonemes are not readily visible.
  62. Connected discourse

    Research is clear how visually discernible visemes are inside of lengthier utterances.

    true or false
    False, it is unclear how visually discernible visemes are inside of lengthier utterances.
  63. •Visual properties of ________ _______ _______ change when placed in sentence form, along with the acoustic waveform.
    isolated speech units
  64. __________ ________ contains numerous articulatory movements and positions that occur in a relatively short period of time.
    Connected speech
  65. The majority of phonemes in conversational speech occur in the _______ position.
  66. Researchers have NOT determined the number of visemes that are identifiable when phonemes occur in the medial position.

    T or F
  67. Sentence structure imposes constraints on word sequences that are not present when the words are used in ___________.
  68. Remember: changing any of the previously listed factors (rate, prosody, pitch, etc.) will effect ____________ because the change in the amount of linguistic information and redundancy present in “normal” speech.
  69. __________determines the predictability of a spoken message.
  70. ______________ allows the receiver to predict missed information from bits of information that have been perceived.
  71. Less redundancy = easier speechreading

    T or F

    More redundancy = easier speechreading
  72. ___________ limit conversation to a specific topic, which governs the vocab that is appropriate to describe the topic.
    Topical constraints (aka contextual/situational)
  73. Use of this rule is seamless, even when used in violation
    Topical constraints
  74. •Ex: “not to change the subject”
    The verbal warning, although a violation, provides the receiver of the message a preparatory set that allows them to expect a specific vocabulary concerning a specific event. T or F
  75. ______________ may not aid physical ability to speechread, but they assist the receiver in visually understanding what has been said.
    Language constraints
  76. Speechreading Factors

    Environment Factors that influence speechreading.
    • Distance
    • Lighting
    • Viewing Angle
    • Contextual and situational informa
  77. Optimal performance around ____ feet from speaker to speechreader.
  78. Up to ____ feet before diminished performance.
  79. Important Factors of lightening in speechreading are:
    No shadows

    Amount is not important, only visibility of speaker’s face
  80. Optimal viewing angle when speechreading is?
  81. 0 to 45 degrees is optimum
  82. ______ degrees is not as good?
    90 degrees
  83. What environmental Cues aid in speechreading?
    • Pictoria and auditory cues
    • Contextual and situational
  84. Speechreading Factors to take into consideration of the speechreader are?
    • 1. Auditory Sensitivity
    • •Amount of hearing loss
    • 2. Auditory Perception
    • •Recognition, identification and understanding
    • 3. Age of Onset
    • 4. Site of Lesion
    • 5. Educational/Therapy Management
  85. Characteristics of Speechreading Success
    • 1. Age: abilities improve throughout childhood, but are dependent on hearing sensitivity
    • •Elderly demonstrate phonemic regression, meaning that their comprehension may not correlate with their hearing sensitivity
    • 2. Gender: adult females achieve higher scores than males
    • 3. Intelligence: no correlation as long as within normal ranges
    • 4. Personality Traits: no correlation to amount of success
    • 5. Visual Skills: visual acuity plays a vital role in the decoding process
  86. visual sensitivity directly correlates with speechreading capabilities is called
    Visual Acuity:
  87. Lower eye blink rates were related to poorer speechreading abilities.

    T or F

    (higher eye blink rates were related to poorer speechreading abilities.)
  88. ________ visual acuity and poorer had a negative effect on speechreading scores.
  89. •Children with ______ or better should be able to speechread at 5 feet with adequate accuracy
  90. As children get older, their speechreading scores decreases over time.

    T or F

    It increases over time.
  91. At ___ feet, visual acuity must be no poorer than ________.
    22, 20/30
  92. acuity must be at least ______ before speech can be decoded visually

    Abilities also dependent on rapidity of processing as physical stimuli are converted to neural energy and interpreted at the cortical level
  93. §Perception is at the ________ level (“gray matter” responsible for higher-order functions, including language, information processing and memory)
  94. Visual Perception

    The______ receives the visual stimuli and enables us to perceive the initial lip movement as speech.
  95. Accuracy is dependent on the function of the _________ to central visual process.
  96. Development of the perceptual processing is still theoretical.

    T or F
  97. What are the 2 stategies of visual perception?
    • Figure-Ground Patterning
    • Closure
  98. the ability to focus on an perceive a target stimulus, or figure, from a background of other stimuli, or ground is called?
    Figure-Ground Patterning:
  99. Development of the figure-ground patterning strategy permits the hearing impaired person to separate meaningful visual and auditory events from ambient stimuli.

    T or F
  100. the ability to combine or pull bits of information together in order to figure out what was said is called?
  101. Closure 4 important things to know.
    • -Decode the messages into meaningful messages.
    • - must recieve at least minimal stimulation
    • - must have had prior experience witht the stimuli.
    • - Increased experience correlates to increased abilities to speechread.
  102. what is essential for the H.O.H because due to their disorder and limited visual cues provided by speech, they receive distorted or fragmented auditory and visual stimuli.
    Closure ??? (slide 14 visual stimuli part 2)
  103. Our reception of information is based on ___________ and _________.
    perception and prediction
  104. Aural information facilitates visual processing, and the visual information enhances auditory processing.

    T or F
  105. In general, the H.O.H are better speechreaders than those with normal hearing.

    T or F
    False (they are not better speechreaders)
  106. The more residual hearing available, the ______ the probability for successful speechreading.

    • -Still processing dependent
    • -Auditory Processing Disorder
  107. Speechreading and the Hearing Impaired

    Currently no universally accepted test or battery has emerged.

    T or F
  108. Test are __________ and __________ and involve recorded and live voice.
    formal and informal
  109. Speechreading and the Hearing Impaired

    Variables affecting scores
    • vocabulary level
    • context
    • response format
  110. Even a _____ visual acuity problem can have adverse effects on speechreading performance.
  111. Research shows incidence of _______ anomalies is more prevalent for hearing impaired children than their peers.
  112. National Technical Institute for the Deaf
    The total number of past students that demonstrated defective vision was around _______.
  113. The _______ population also presents challenges due to a decline in not only hearing sensitivity, but added visual acuity problems may hinder speechreading abilities and the ability to process the information more accurately
  114. The degree of dependency on vision is directly related to the extent of the _________ ________.
    hearing loss
  115. ___________ is usualy less effective than audition when trying to decode spoken language.
  116. Congenitally deaf individuals may not have English as their native language……

    T or F
  117. The Deaf are at a disadvantange because they must learn to _________ a language that is foreign to them without the benefit of auditory cues.
  118. Before the deaf can gain meaning from speechreading, they must learn the _________ rules of English.
    • linguistic
    • -The rules are most naturally acquired through auditory stimulation
    • -They may not be able to fill in the gaps that would normally be provided by speechreading or hearin
  119. Hard of Hearing
    • 1. Possess functional residual hearing to some extent
    • 2. Less dependent on vision than the Deaf culture when perceiving speech
    • 3. They still receive considerably more information from the spoken code than is provided solely by their auditory channel 4. Even limited auditory input allows the listener to establish a reference from which additional information can be gained visually
  120. Continuous Discourse Tracking
    • •Requires the H.O.H. listener to speechread verbatim passages presented by the clinician
    • •Presented in a vision-only or combined AV manner
    • •Scored by counting the number of words per minute (wpm) the listener-viewer correctly identifies
  121. A unisensory philosophy of management for the hearing impaired is called?
    • Auditory Verbal
    • - does not focus on speechreading
    • -maximizes the auditory channel almost exclusively
    • - Children often emerge with speechreading capabilities.
  122. In Auditory verbal, formal speechreading training is not incorporated in the overall program.

    T or F
  123. In Auditory Verbal speechreading is sometimes prevented in some therapy activities?

    T or F
  124. LSLS stands for
    Listening and Spoken language Specialist
  125. LSLS Cert AVT stands for
    Certified Auditory-Verbal therapist
  126. Total Communication : Pediatrics

    It is suggested to use a __________ approach when teaching the H.O.H.

    - this focuses on each individual child's motivation, toleracne and sense of responsibility for communicating.
  127. Total Communication Goals:
    • - Build the child's knowledge base concerning the speechreading process
    • - Develop an appreciation of the benefits that speechreading can provide in perceiving speech.
    • - Stimuli is based on each client's capabilities and needs in real life situations.
    • - clinical activities address the individual needs of each child.
  128. Children with Severe to Profound losses are fit with hearing aids as early as possible.

    T or F
  129. With Total communication children are encouraged to use _______ along with auditory training.
  130. In total communication both analytic and synthetic training activites are used?

    T or F
  131. Trends in Speechreading

    • 1. Training is used for lengthy periods of time only for certain circumstances
    • 2. Long term speechreading therapy includes both synthetic and analytic training activities
    • 3. Level of difficulty can vary by degrading auditory and visual components
    • 4. Can be completed in an individual or group setting
    • 5. Group settings provide an opportunity for participants to interact and learn from one another
  132. Walden and colleagues: suggest that demonstrable improvement in speechreading skills within the first ________ hours, but little improvement thereafter
  133. Sentence recognition is also optimized ____________ after training, regardless if the training is primarily auditory or visual.
    Implies that ________ term involvement is usually the best approach.
    immediately, short
  134. Trends in Speechreading

    Intent is to highlight the benefits of using the visual skills that a patient already has in order to maximize speech perception abilities. T or F
  135. Group AR Sessions
    • •Groups meet once a week for 4-6 weeks
    • •Each session is devoted to a general topic related to enhancing overall communication skills
  136. Common topics include of AR Sessions are:
    • •Understanding hearing loss
    • •Using ALDs
    • •Using communicative strategies and speechreading
    • •Effective use of hearing aids
  137. Group AR Sessions provide.....
    • a condensed version of the same type of communication-related information and helpful hints
    • - Can be completed in one session, usually during the hearing aid fitting
    • -Ex. the WATCH method to help focus the importance of observing the talker
  138. 4 Quick Tips for Speechreading
  139. - Be relatively close to the speaker
    • - Watch the speaker’s mouth, facial expressions and hand gestures
    • - Maximize your hearing with hearing aids and ALDs
    • - Let the talker know you have a hearing loss
  140. Manual communication is comprised of ___________ gestural codes.
  141. the visual message is transmitted by fingers, hands, arms, bodily postures or fingerspelling, this is called ?
    Manual Communication
  142. Used primarily by the Deaf culture to communicate with other individuals with ___________ ________ skills.
    manual communication

    - can be used in isloation or combined with speech.
  143. 4 Identifying Physical Characteristics of ASL
    • •Hand Configuration
    • •Movement
    • •Location
    • •Orientation

    •Stokoe (1978): claims there are 19 basic symbols for hand shapes, 12 basics for locations, and 24 basics for movement (cheremes)
  144. In ASL there is _______ a corresponding sign to reperesnt each English word.
  145. ASL is NOT a form of English, but is a distinct language produced manually that requires just as unique a translation of English as does any foreign language.

    T or F
  146. Signed English Systems
    • - Manually coded English is often used in an educational setting to minimize the differences that exist between spoken and written English and ASL
    • - A system in which English words that appear in a message are signed in that same order
  147. Fingerspelling
    • - Have the senders spell the words with their fingers
    • -Speakers spell their message in the air by using various handshapes to represent the letters in the English alphabet
  148. Fingerspelling represents
    • Represents 26 letters
    • 25 handshapes
    • 2 hand movements
  149. Another word for fingerspelling?
    manual alphabet
  150. What is the least efficient form of manual communication?
  151. Due to the rapidity of finger "spelling" a messge, reception requires considerable practice and concentration.

    T or F
  152. What is used to supplement all forms of manual communication by expressing proper names, technical terms and events that cannot be conveyed by signs?
Card Set
Aural Rehab Test 3 Visual Stimuli Slides
Aural Rehab Test 3 Visual Stimuli Slides