1. the greater part or number; the number larger than half the total (opposed to minority): the majority of the population.
  2. : A subordinate group whose member have significantly less control or power over their own lives than
    do the members of a dominant or majority group.
  3. A group that is socially set apart because of obvious physical differences.
    Racial group
  4. A group set apart from other because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
    Ethnic group
  5. Race is a social construction, and this process benefits the oppressor, who defines who is privileged and who is not.
    Concept of Race
  6. the tendency to assume that one's culture is superior to all others
  7. a doctrine that one race is superior
  8. negative attitude, not behavior
  9. a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society.
  10. The process by which a subordinate individual or roup takes on the characteristics of the dominant group.
  11. Mutual respect between the various groups in a society for the one another’s cultures, allowing minorities to express their
    own culture w/out experiencing prejudice or hostility.
  12. The process by which a dominant group and a subordinate group combine through intermarriage to form a new group.
  13. directs the Department of Justice to gather data on hate or bias crimes
    Hate crime statistic act
  14. -involves prejudiced people believing they are society's victims
    -transfers guilt from the individual to some vulnerable group
    -lead to mass extermination of German Jews during World War II
  15. the basis of racial discrimination in the United States
    Exploitation theory
  16. any arbitrary police initiated action based on race ethinicity, or natural origin rather than a person behavior.
    Racial profiling
  17. The combination of current discrimination w/past discrimination created by poor schools and menial jobs.
    Total discrimination
  18. The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
    - Institutional forms of discrimination are committed collectively against a group

    - May be unconscious - in that it is not a function of awareness of discrimination
    Institutional discrimination
  19. Criminal Justice and Housing
    1964 civil rights act
  20. - The pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods
    - Applied to areas other than housing
  21. The positive effort to recruit subordinate-group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and
    educational opportunities
    - Today, has become a catchall term for racial preference programs and goals

    - Lightning rod for opposition to any programs that suggest special consideration of women and racial minorities
    Affirmative action
  22. Refers to the barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership

    - Additionally, they face glass walls that block lateral moves to areas from which executives are promoted
    Glass ceiling
  23. Beliefs and policies favoring native-born citizens over immigrants
  24. Effectively ended all Chinese immigration for more than 60 years
    Chinese exclusion act
  25. Primary goals of the act was to reunite families and protect American labor market; Also initiated restrictions on immigration from Latin America
    1965 naturalization act
  26. Historic change in immigration policy Amnesty granted to 1.7 million illegal immigrants who could document long term residency
    Immigration reform and control act 1986
  27. Emphasized more effort to keep immigrants from entering the country illegally; No access to social security and welfare
    1996 illegal immigration reform act
  28. Marcus Hansen’s contention that ethnic interest and awareness increase in the third generation among the grandchildren of immigrants.
    Principal of third generation
  29. Expressions of ethnicity involving symbols of one’s cultural heritage
    Symbolic ethnicity
  30. Fear of hatred of strangers
  31. The social acceptance of prejudice against White ethnics, when intolerance against non-White minorities is regarded as
    Respectable bigotry
  32. People’s opportunities to provide themselves w/material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences.
    Life chances
  33. The religious dimension in American life that merges the state with sacred beliefs. It also reflects that no single faith is
    privileged over all others.
    Civil religion
  34. Laws that defined the low position held by slaves in the United States
    Slave Codes
  35. Slaveholders replaced any vestige of African tradition, also complexity of social life on the continent.
    Factors that contributed to loss of African culture
  36. The Document that freed slaves only in the confederacy in 1863
    Emancipation proclamation
  37. That state laws requiring "seperate but equal" accommodations for Blacks were "reasonable" use of state government power.
    Plessy v. furgenson
  38. In 1948, President Harry S Truman's Executive Order 9981 ordered the integration of the armed forces shortly after World War II, a major advance
    in civil rights. Using the Executive Order (E.O.) meant that Truman could bypass Congress. Representatives of the Solid South, all white Democrats, would likely
    have stonewalled related legislation.
    Desegregation in military
  39. organized in October 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton, age 24 and Bobby Seale, age 30, to represent urban
    Blacks in a political climate that the Panthers felt was unresponsive.
    Black Panther Party
  40. abolitionist, both white and Free Blacks.
    Anti slavery advocate
  41. Results from residential patterns
    Defacto segregation
  42. according to policy or law children were assigned to schools on the basis of race
    De jure segregation
  43. Challenges to Family Stability

    - Female-headed household

    - Economic status of African-American male has been deteriorating

    - Extended family and augmented members as a means of emotional, social and physical support

    Black family life
Card Set
Midterm Exam review