ling final

  1. What is semantics?
    study of meaning of words, phrases, and sentences
  2. what are the 3 aspects of linguistic meaning?
    • sense
    • information content
    • reference
  3. What is sense?
    aspect of meaning that is indep. of what it may refer to in real world. Speaker mental conception of words meaning
  4. what is information content?
    info conveyed by or contained in a linguistic unit such as phrase, sent, or utterance.
  5. what is reference?
    particular entity (idea,obj) to which a word or linguistic expression relates
  6. compostional semantics
    ways in which meanings of syntactic structure combined to determine meaning of phrases.
  7. varaible reference
    reference of term (wd or phrase) that does not always pick out or refer to same object
  8. what is a drawback to teory of reference?
    we need sense! if no sense, word meaning will be restricted
  9. what is mental image?
    assoc. with word, typically has prototype
  10. Lexicon
    collection of words in lang, mental dictioanry
  11. sets
    collection of items of some sort, no order, no relation, but share some particular property denoted by a particular word
  12. hyponym
    more specific term a word whose denotation is always included in set of things denoted by hypernym
  13. hypernym
    a more general term- word whose denotation always includes set of things denoted by some hyponym
  14. synonomy
    property of words that have same denotation
  15. sister terms
    words that are same level of any given hierarchy of sets of semantic features
  16. Antonymy
    opposite, related yet contrastic meaning
  17. complementary pairs
    pair of antonyms such that everything must be described by 1st word, 2nd word or neither

    • married/unmarried
    • alive/dead
  18. gradable
    • words taht are antonyms and denote opposite ends of a scale
    • ex) easy,hard
    • wet,dry
  19. Reverses
    one word in the pair suggests movement that "undoes" the movement suggested by the other.

    • right/left
    • inside/outside
  20. converses
    2 opposing point of views, for one member of the pair to have reference, the other must as well

    • lend/borrow
    • send/recieve
    • employer/employee
  21. semantic features
    conditions that must be met in order for a word to be appropriate to use
  22. what are truth values?
    truth of a sentence-- T or F
  23. ____is an improtant part of sentence meaning
  24. What are 'possible scenarios"?
    possible ways that a world could have been like, when in fact, it didn't.
  25. counterfactual
    a possible state of affairs that differs from actual state of affairs in some particular way.
  26. principle of compositionality
    meaning of words+ order of words=meaning of sentence
  27. idioms
    cases where sequence of words are not taken literally

    ex) pulling my leg
  28. what are teh 2 things we want to know about the meaning of sentence?
    • 1) truth values
    • 2) truth conditions
  29. what are the 4 types of intersections in adjective meanings?
    • 1)pure intersection
    • 2)intersective adjectives
    • 3) relative intersections
    • 4)subsective adj
  30. Relative intersection
    relationship between adjective denotation and noun denotation s.t. that adj picks out a set of things relative to set of things denoted by noun that it is modifying and relative to the context in which it is being used.

    ex)loud explosion vs loud whisper
  31. pure intersection
    relationship between the denotations of an adjective and a noun s.t each pics out a particular group of things, and the denotation of the phrase that results from modifying the noun with the adjecive is all of the things that are in both the adjective and noun sets.
  32. intersective adjective
    adj whose denotation picks out a set of referents independently from the set of referents denoted by the noun being modified.

    ex) green-----sweater= green sweater
  33. subsective adj
    adj that derives its meaning by picking out a subset of the things from the set of things denoted by the noun being modified.
  34. Pragmatics
    study of how context affects language: even if utterance is/isn't felicitous(well chosen) in a given context and how the context affects the utterances meaning or interpretation.
  35. utterance
    • a speech event: particular occurance of a person speaking.
    • content that's said -words, phrases, sentences
  36. Does a sentence have context? why or why not?
    no, because it is an abstract idea and not an event
  37. Deictic
    word or expression that takes its meaning relative to time, place, and speaker of the utterance.
  38. linguistic context
    linguistic environment in which an utternace is uttered: specifically, the discourse that has immediately preceded the utterance in question.
  39. social context
    the aspect of an utterance's context that inclds. info about the social relatnshp betwn participants in the discourse, status relative to each other, etc.
  40. situational context
    aspect of an utterances context that includes such info as who and where teh speakers are, what's going on around them and their environments.
  41. What are the 3 types of contexts and what do they provide?
    • linguistic
    • situational
    • social
    • they provide critical info about what utterances mean.
  42. What is felicitous?
    utterance that is situatioinally appropriate
  43. Cooperative Principle
    principle formulated by Grice stating that underlying a conversation is the understanding that what one says is intended to contribute to the purposes of the conversation.
  44. Maxim
    set of conversational rules to enforce compliance with cooperative principle
  45. What are the 4 of Grice's maxims?
    • Relevance
    • Quantity
    • Quality
    • Manner
  46. Maxim of quality
    make contribution to one that is true
  47. maxim of QUANTITY
    do not make your contribution more or less informative than required
  48. Maxim of informativeness
    read maximal sterotypical interpretations into minimal expressions
  49. maxim of manner
    avoid obscurity and ambiguity of expression, be brief and orderly
  50. Jargon
    speech usually assoc. with or used within a particular occupation, hobby, or sport.
  51. flouting
    violating a maxim to convey a particular message, countering what was originally said.
  52. entailment
    relationship between 2 sentences s.t. the 1st is true, 2nd one MUST be true.
  53. Implication
    form of indirect communcation without entailment
  54. inference
    conclusion that a person is reasonably entitled to draw from an implication or implicature
  55. implicature
    idea that is communicated based on the way language is used, based on what speaker knows about the language.
  56. speech acts
    actions performed only through lang. descirbes use of speech emphasizes speakers intention/goal in producing an utternace.
  57. What are 6 common speech acts?-
    **question a request that is ordered to assert a promsing threat.
    • question
    • assertion
    • request
    • order
    • promise
    • threat
  58. felicitous
    describes an utterance that is important for the context
  59. performative speech act
    speech that uses a performative verb
  60. performative verb
    verb that denotes a linguistic action
  61. When using a performative verb, what must be true about the sentence?
    subject must be 'I' or 'we' since speech acts concern the interaction between speakers/hearers
  62. How can we check if a verb is performative?
    • 'hereby' test.
    • Insert 'hereby' before the alleged performative verb
  63. direct speech acts
    perform functions in direct and literal manner
  64. indirect speech acts
    utterance that is performed in an indirect manner
  65. Presupposition
    underlying assumption that must be satisfied in order for an utterence to make sense (or for it to be debatable)
  66. existence presuppositions
    saying an utterance to which the speaker supposes something exists.
Card Set
ling final
ling final vocab chp 6.