1. What is Pica or geophagy?
    eating of non-nutrient substances (due to deficiency of iron)
  2. What is Myoglobin?
    transports oxygen, carbon dioxide in the muscle and gives muscle it's red color
  3. What is Osteoporosis?
    lack of calcium (alchol, lack of exercise, and smoking can worsen the condition)
  4. What are electrolytes?
    sodium, potassium, and chloride > they regulate water balance
  5. "Sodium Free" refers to what?
    refers to food products containing less than 5 mg/serving
  6. What is Edema?
    fluid accumilates ouside of cell/ retention of sodiim
  7. What is Osmotic Pressure?
    its the force that moves the water into a space where a solute is more concentrated
  8. What is Goiter?
    disease of not enough iodine (enlarged thyroid gland)
  9. What is Mottling?
    brown spotting on the teeth due to too much flouride
  10. What are Oxalates?
    greens> spinach, kale, rhubarb, choclate, strawberries (oxalates interfer with absorbtion of calcium)
  11. What are Phytates?
    grains> oats, barley, rice (Phytates interfer with absorbtion of calcium)
  12. What are the 3 minerals used in nerve muscle function?
    sodium, potassium, chloride
  13. What are teh 2 major classifications of minerals?
    Macro minerals & Micro minerals
  14. Heart failure may result from a deficiency of what minerals?
    Potassium, Selenum, and Magnesium
  15. Physical weakness, lack of energy and apathy may be the result of a deficiency of what?
    iron, iodine and copper
  16. Minerals that are found in high concentration in extracellular fluids?
    sodium and chloride
  17. Minerals that are found in high concentration in intracellular fluids?
  18. What is the mineral least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet?
  19. List 3 minerals that are most apt to be deficient in the American diet
    iron, zinc, calcium
  20. What are the 4 most abundant minerals found in the body?
    1st calcium, 2nd phosphorus, 3rd potassium, 4th sulfur
  21. Which mineral is important for bone formation and mitochondrial function?
  22. The most common nutrient deficiency worldwide?
  23. What is the best sports drink?
  24. Diets deficient in minerals cause slow and stunted___1___ and __2______ the ability to do physical work.
    • 1. growth
    • 2. decrease
  25. Which mineral is considered to be an antioxidant?
  26. What are the 3 minerals that are considered environmental toxicants?
    mercury, lead, cadmium
  27. Toxic amounts of what mineral can cause mental retardation in children?
  28. Should air travelers increase or decrease their fluid intake ?
  29. Water balance in the body is maintained by balancing_____1__ outside the cell and _____2__ inside the cell.
    • 1. sodium
    • 2. potassium
  30. Pharmacologists consider 250 mg of caffeine a "large" amount. This amount would be found in how many cups of brewed coffee?
  31. Major sources of Potassium?
    oranges and bananas
  32. Major sources of Iron?
    red lean meat, liver, peanut butter, dried beans and egg yolk
  33. Major sources of Iodine?
    seafood, iodized salt
  34. Major sources of Fluoride?
    fluoridated water, toothpaste
  35. Major sources of Calcium?
    dairy products
  36. Major sources of Cobalt?
    protein sources only (vitamin B12 only)
  37. Major sources of Sodium?
    salt, soy sauce, processed foods
  38. Major sources of Selenum?
    liver, meats and grains
  39. Deficiency/ disease of Zinc?
    lack of sexual development
  40. Deficiency/disease of Potassium?
    heart failure
  41. Deficiency/disease of Flouride?
  42. Deficiency/disease of Iodine?
    cretinism, mental retardation, goiter
  43. Deficiency/disease of Iron?
    weakness, lassitude, anemia
  44. Deficiency/disease of Water?
    dehydration and decreased physical performance
  45. Deficiency/disease of Selenium?
    heart disease (cardiomyopothy), Keshan disease
  46. Deficiency/disease of Magnesium?
    uncontrollable muscle twitching and convulsions
  47. Deficiency/disease of Calcium?
  48. What is major functions of Magnesium?
    synthesis & breakdown of energy nutrients & relaxes nerve impulses & muscle contractions
  49. What is major function of Iron?
    brings oxygen to the cells to liberate energy
  50. What is major function of Zinc?
    essential for protein synthesis and growth & healing of wounds
  51. What is major function of Iodine?
    regulates metabolism
  52. What is major function of Sulfur?
    maintains the three dimensional structure of proteins, the proper function of enzymes and the ridged structure of hair, nails and skin
  53. What is major function of Phosphorus?
    DNA, necessary for energy release/transfer, phospholipids in cell membranes, coenzyme function
  54. What is major function of Chromium?
    glucose metabolism
  55. What is major function of Copper?
    heals wounds, helps make elastin, protect nerve fibers, helps prevent anemia, part of many enzymes, involved in protein and iron metabolism
  56. What is major function of Manganese?
    helps enzymes metabolize energy nutrients and clotting of blood
  57. What is major function of Molybdenum?
    helps with activity of various enzymes and component of enamel of teeth
  58. What is major function of Water?
    acts as lubricant, acts as a solvent, regulates temperature, shock absorber
  59. Toxicity of Iron?
    liver damage and heart failure
  60. Toxicity of Sodium?
    Hypertension leading to heart disease
  61. Toxicity of Iodine?
    • decreased thyroid activity, enlarged thyroid gland
    • hyperthyroidism
  62. Toxicity of Water?
    headache, vomitting, abdominal cramps, circulatory failure, and death
  63. Toxicity of Potassium?
  64. Toxicity of Fluoride?
    mottling or brown spotting on teeth
  65. How much Sodium is recommended?
    500-2400 mg
  66. What can cause calcium loss from the bone?
    excessive amounts of Vitamin A , protein and caffeine
  67. Where is most of the body's Calcium stored?
  68. What percent of salt in diets come from processed foods?
  69. What is the deficiency or Potassium?
  70. What is the toxicity of Potassium?
  71. Where is most of the body's Potassium located?
    intracellular (98%)
  72. Where is Chloride in the body located?
    major negative ion of the fluid outside the cells
  73. Functions of Sulfur?
    • component of Amino Acids to stabilize their shape
    • Proper functions of enzymes
    • rigid structure of hair, nails, and skin
  74. Characteristics of Sulfur?
    • found in every cell in body and essential for life itself
    • 10% of mineral content of body--4th most abundant in body
    • skin, hair, and nails have high sulfur content
  75. Functions of Iron?
    • Transports oxygen & carbon dioxide to and from cells
    • combines with protein to make hemoglobin
    • brings oxygen to the cells to liberate energy
  76. Characteristics of Iron?
    • Need Vitamin C to absorb iron
    • tannic acid(found in tea), too much fiber and too much phosphorus interferes with absorption of Fe
    • Only about 10% of ingested Fe is absorbed
    • Fe is best absorbed when comes from meat
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