1. Notochord
    Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    Pharyngeal slits
    Post anal tail
    • -derived from mesoderm, seen at some point during development, gel between discs
    • -develops into brain spinal chors, Central nervous system
    • -All have at some point becuz began evolution in water
    • -Animals loose in developmental form
  2. Urochordata
    • -look like invertabrae in adult form
    • -filter feeders
    • -sessile
    • -tunicates "sea squirts"
  3. Cephalochordata
    • -cephalization
    • -aquatic
    • -lancelots
    • -burrow in sand w/ anterrior up
    • -filter feed w/ pharyngeal slits
  4. Vertebrata
    • Craniates: appearance of head, protect brain, bigger brains, all bilateral sym, closed circulatory system gets oxygen to cells more efficiently
    • Neural crest:dorsal hollow nerve cord from ectoderm will form cells we c in skull like jaw
  5. Agnathans
    1. Class Myxini
    2.Class cephalaspidomorphi
    1. placoderms(now extinct) & ancanthodians
    2. chondrichythyes
    • -jawless vertabraes
    • 1. skull of cartilage, primitive keep notochord thru life
    • 2. evolution of vertebral column, cartilage vertebrae, many parasidic, lampreys
    • Jawed vertebraes
    • 1.jaw evolved from, effective at ingesting prey
    • 2. have jaw, sharks & rays, bony teeth, bony skeleton b4 cartilage
    • -fast, constant movement all ow for constant h20 movement from mouth to gill, most carnivores
  6. oviparous
    1. class Actinopterygii
    2. Actinistia
    3. Dipnoi
    • 1. eggs fertilized internally, lay eggs and hatch outside
    • 2. eggs stay in female where hatch and sharks born alive
    • 3. Young nourished w/ placenta
    • -the bony fish, operculum help move h20 over gills, swim bladder control boyency, scales secrete mucus
    • 1. biggest most diverse, raylike rods w/in fin-flexible
    • 2. fins more muscular, bone ext of skeleton, lobe-finned fish
    • 3. Also lobe finned, rudimentary lungs still have gills, terrestrial animal evolve from here, survive in swamy area
  7. Class Amphibia
    1.Order Urodela, Anura , Apoda
    2. reproduction
    Class reptilia
    1. Order Chelonia: squamata: crocodilia
    Class Aves
    • 1. salamanders and newts, frogs and toads, look like annelids but vert. charac
    • 2. external fertilization, complete metamorphisis, extraembryonic membrane-allow for true life on land, lay eggs on land
    • Skin of keratin-waterproof protects from drying out, lungs, oviparous, ectotherms, three chambered heart(not alligators and crocs-4 chamber)
    • 1. turtles, tourtises: lizards: croc alligators
    • -scales of keratin, oviparous, from dinosours, sexual dimorphism-diff forms between males and females, large brains fro body, porous bones, Active metabolism, 4 chambered heart, lungs w/ airsacs, endothermic
  8. Class Mammalia
    mammary glands
    1. Monotremes
    2. Marsupials
    3. Placental mammals
    • -most vivparous, body hair, warm blooded
    • -make/secrete milk
    • -complex brain allow for learning, k-selected lots of parental care
    • 1. oviparous-layeggs, secrete milk thru fur, Australia: geographic, allopatric evolution
    • 2. ovi/viviparous-eggs hatch in body, development completed in pouch
    • 3 viviparous, live birth, eutherian
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