1. "Nutrition Source � Carbohydrates
    Fiber and Whole Grains"
  2. 1. Why may avoiding carbohydrates not be a healthy choice?
    "They provide the body with fuel it needs for physical activity and for proper organ function
  3. 2. What are the healthiest sources of carbohydrates?
    "The best sources of carbohydrates�whole grains
  4. "3. What are the less healthy sources of carbohydrates
    and why are they less healthy?"
  5. "4. In contrast to the old system of classifying carbohydrates as either simple or complex
    what is a better way of distinguishing healthy from unhealthy carbohydrates?"
  6. 5. Describe the difference in the mechanisms behind type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
    "People with type 1 diabetes (once called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) don't make enough insulin
  7. 6. List the components of the metabolic syndrome and the health risks that are increased by insulin resistance.
    "Insulin resistance isn't just a blood sugar problem. It has also been linked with a variety of other problems
  8. 7. List the risk factors that promote insulin resistance.
  9. 8. How does the glycemic index help distinguish between healthy and less healthy choices among complex carbohydrates and simple sugars?
    "Foods with a high glycemic index
  10. 9. Explain the factors that affect the glycemic index of a food.
  11. 10. What diseases have been linked to high glycemic index diets?
    "linked to an increased risk for diabetes
  12. 11. What are the limits to relying on glycemic index as an indicator of healthy food choices?
    glycemic index has little effect on weight or health.
  13. 12. Why is the calculated glycemic load an improvement over the measured glycemic index of a food?
    "One thing that a food's glycemic index does not tell us is how much digestible carbohydrate it delivers. Take watermelon as an example. The sweet-tasting fruit has a very high glycemic index. But a slice of watermelon has only a small amount of carbohydrate per serving (as the name suggests
  14. 13. List several examples of carbohydrate food sources that have a low glycemic load.
    "�High-fiber fruits and vegetables (not including potatoes)
  15. 14. List several examples of carbohydrate food sources that have a high glycemic load.
    "Baked potato
  16. 15. Explain the current understanding of the advantages and limitations of a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet.
    sticking with a diet is more important than the diet itself.
  17. 16. Describe how a low carbohydrate diet can be optimally designed to promote health.
    "If you want to go the lower carb route
  18. "17. Describe the nutritional content of the three separate layers of grain: the bran
    the endosperm
  19. 18. How does the milling process that produces refined grain flours change the nutritional value of those flours?
    "Milling strips away the bran and germ
  20. "19. Describe the results of studies on the effect of eating whole grains and whole grain products on cardiovascular disease
    type 2 diabetes
  21. "20. What are the challenges food shoppers face when looking for a whole-grain product
    and what advice can we give to help them meet that challenge?"
  22. 21. How does the typical fiber intake in North America compare with current recommendations?
    "Current recommendations suggest that children and adults consume at least 20 grams of dietary fiber per day from food
  23. 22. Describe some differences between how soluble and insoluble fiber function to promote health.
    Soluable- good for cholesterol and blood sugar. Insoluable- Constipation.
  24. "23. Summarize the current evidence for the role of fiber in preventing heart disease
    the metabolic syndrome
  25. "24. List some of the best food sources of each of the following: a) soluble fiber
    b) insoluble fiber"
  26. 25. Which type of fiber may be most effective for preventing diverticular disease?
    "eating dietary fiber
  27. 26. Describe the evolution of the evidence about the role of dietary fiber in preventing colon cancer from early descriptive and retrospective studies to recent prospective and randomized controlled studies.
    "Starting about 30 years ago
  28. LPI � Glycemic Index/Metabolic Syndrome
  29. 27. Why is the glycemic index an improvement over other ways of classifying carbohydrates?
    "A more accurate indicator of the relative glycemic response to dietary carbohydrates should be glycemic load
  30. 28. How does a high glycemic index food increase the likelihood of hypoglycemia after a meal?
    "Rapid increases in blood glucose are potent signals to the beta-cells of the pancreas to increase insulin secretion (2). Over the next few hours
  31. 29. What measurement is used along with the glycemic index to arrive at the glycemic load of a food?
    The glycemic load of a food is calculated by multiplying the glycemic index by the amount of carbohydrate in grams provided by a food and dividing the total by 100 (
  32. 30. How does a high glycemic load diet influence the development of diabetes?
    "After a high-glycemic load meal
  33. "31. In large prospective studies of nurses and male health professionals
    which foods were most consistently associated with increased risk of diabetes?"
  34. 32. What are the benefits of low glycemic load diets in the treatment of existing diabetes?
  35. 33. What lipid abnormalities and other cardiovascular risk factors are associated with a high glycemic load diet?
    increased serum triglyceride concentrations and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations; both are risk factors for cardiovascular disease
  36. 34. What type of individual is likely to be most susceptible to the adverse cardiovascular effects of a high-glycemic load diet?
    "The relationship between dietary glycemic load and CHD risk was more pronounced in overweight women
  37. 35. What are the probable mechanisms by which a low glycemic load diet improves the results of weight loss diets?
    "low-glycemic index foods delayed the return of hunger
  38. 36. What changes from a typical Western diet would still allow consumption of foods high in carbohydrates while lowering the overall glycemic load of the diet?
    "Increasing the consumption of whole grains
  39. "
  40. LPI � Whole grains
  41. 37. List the beneficial compounds present in abundance in whole grains.
    "Whole-grain foods contain the entire grain
  42. 38. What changes in fasting insulin levels and other measures of insulin resistance occur on a diet low in whole grains and high in refined grains?
    "higher whole-grain intakes have been associated with decreased insulin resistance (9) and increased insulin sensitivity (10) in people who do not have type 2 DM. In a controlled clinical trial that compared the effects of a diet rich in whole grains with a diet high in refined grains in overweight and obese adults
  43. "39. In prospective studies of coronary heart disease risk
    what whole grain foods were associated with reduced risk?"
  44. 40. Fiber from which whole grains appears to improve total and LDL cholesterol levels?
    increasing oat fiber intake results in modest reductions in total and LDL-cholesterol. And soluable fiber from barley.
  45. 41. How do phytosterols in whole grains cause a decrease in serum cholesterol?
    "Whole grains are also sources of phytosterols
  46. 42. By what mechanisms may constituents of whole grains reduce the risk of some types of cancer?
    "whole grains are rich in numerous compounds that may be protective against cancer
  47. "43. Other than cancer
    what intestinal disorders may be prevented by diets rich in whole grains
  48. 44. What strategies can be used to make sure whole grain foods are purchased when shopping?
    Make sure they say whole wheat or whole grain.
  49. 45. List some other strategies for increasing whole grain intake
    Eat whole grain ceral. Whole grain pasta. Brown rice instead of white rice.
  50. Notes and Lecture � Carbohydrates and Fiber
  51. "46. What is the role of the gastrointestinal tract
  52. 47. Explain how a meal rich in easily-digested carbohydrate can eventually result in low blood sugar levels and an early return of hunger.
  53. 48. Explain how insulin resistance affects pancreatic function.
    With fast high levels of glucose the more insulin is secreted and then the blood sugar decreases fast and insulin receptors will have a gradual down-regulation and more insulin will be needed next time.
  54. 49. List the important contributors to the development of insulin resistance.
  55. 50. What health problems other than blood sugar disorders have been associated with insulin resistance?
    "Atherogenic LDL's
  56. 51. List the nutritional and other contributing causes of the metabolic syndrome
  57. 52. List the clues that suggest a patient has the metabolic syndrome
    "Imparied blood glucose regulation or insulin function
  58. 53. Describe the dangers associated with the metabolic syndrome
    "Atherogenic LDL's
  59. "54. What is the difference between glycemic index and glycemic load
    and which one appears to be a more accurate indicator of the effects of a food on blood sugar?"
  60. "55. When calculating the glycemic index
    a control or reference food is given the value of 100 for comparison. What are the two foods used in different tables as the reference food?"
  61. 56. What characteristics of a carbohydrate-containing food determine its glycemic index or glycemic load? How do these characteristics interact with digestive physiology?
  62. 57. What pathological consequences are associated with high glycemic index diets?
    Insulin resistance and heart disease.
  63. 58. How should low-carbohydrate diets be designed to most effectively reduce risks of insulin resistance and heart disease?
    Insulin resistance- diets rich in vegetable sources of fat and protein may modestly reduce the risk of diabetes. Heart disease- vegetable source of fat and protein.
  64. 59. What do measurements of the glycemic index of different sources of carbohydrate tell us about the similarities and differences between sugars and complex carbohydrates?
    "The primary difference is that these monosaccharides exist free in solution in HFCS
  65. 60. Which complex carbohydrate foods have a very high glycemic index?
  66. 61. List the eight common carbohydrate sources that contribute to the typical high-carbohydrate American diet
  67. 62. Which micronutrients (vitamins or minerals) are depleted by more than 50% when whole wheat flour is refined into unenriched white flour?
    Everything besides folate and protein.
  68. 63. Risk for which diseases can be lowered with a diet high in whole or intact grains?
  69. 64. List all of the possible mechanisms that may explain the role of whole grains in preventing disease.
    "Dietary source of fiber
  70. 65. What terms may be used in an ingredients label of a food product to indicate that refined flour was used in that product. What terms must be used only when a whole grain flour product is used?
    Needs to say 100% whole grain or it might not be.
  71. 66. What health-promoting properties are associated with viscous fiber? Which molecular families belong to this group? What foods are especially rich in this type of fiber?
    "Good for Colesterol and blood sugar. They are soluble. Pectins
  72. 67. What health-promoting properties are associated with non-viscous fiber? Which molecular families belong to this group? What foods are especially rich in this type of fiber?
    "Increases sool bulk
  73. 68. What health-promoting properties are associated with fermentable fiber? Which molecular families belong to this group? What foods are especially rich in this type of fiber?
    "Influences hepatic cholesterol synthesis
  74. 69. By what mechanism(s) might a high-fiber diet help prevent weight gain or promote weight loss?
  75. 70. Which food family consistently has the highest fiber content in a typical serving?
  76. 71. What fiber-containing foods and fiber supplements lower LDL cholesterol?
    Soluable fibers akaViscous fibers.
  77. "72. What is the effect of adding viscous fiber to a meal on subsequent blood glucose and insulin levels
    compared to a meal lacking viscous fiber?"
  78. "73. What fiber-containing foods and fiber supplements consistently increase stool bulk
    shorten transit time
  79. "74. Explain the evidence suggesting that good sources of either viscous or non-viscous fiber can help prevent diabetes
    coronary heart disease
  80. "75. What is the clinical significance of diverticular disease
    and what type of fiber appears to provide the strongest protection from this disease?"
  81. 76. Explain the inconsistent evidence for a role of fiber in the prevention of colorectal cancer.
    "Some evidence shows help and others don�t
  82. 77. What is meant by the term prebiotics and which fiber supplements are given this classification?
    Prebiotics are nondigestible foods whose beneficial effects on the host result from the selective stimulation of growth and or activity of members of the bacterial community that inhabits the human bowel.
  83. 78. What strategies may help people avoid gastrointestinal side effects of increasing their fiber intake?
    "gradually increasing fiber intake
  84. 79. What strategy will help avoid interactions between fiber and medications?
    one- two hour separation between taking meds and fiber.
  85. 80. What component of high fiber cereals and legumes is thought to be responsible for the effect of these foods on mineral absorption?
  86. Nutrition Source � Protein
  87. 1. Which high protein foods are considered the healthiest choices?
    "Vegetable sources of protein
  88. 2. What are the important differences between animal and vegetable sources of protein in terms of their effects on health and disease?
    "Some of the protein you eat contains all the amino acids needed to build new proteins. This kind is called complete protein. Animal sources of protein tend to be complete. Other protein sources lack one or more ""essential"" amino acids�that is
  89. "
  90. 3. What types of cooking or processing may increase the risk of cancer from eating meat?
    Overcooking is bad. Processed meat is also bad.
  91. 4. What is meant by an �incomplete� protein?
    Proteins that do not have all of the essential amino acids.
  92. "5. Why is there a set requirement for daily protein intake
    but not for carbohydrate or total fat intake?"
  93. 6. How does the typical protein intake on a Western diet compare with daily protein requirements?
    "In the United States and other developed countries
  94. 7. Which high-protein foods have been linked to increased risk of colon cancer?
    "avoiding processed meats (such as hot dogs
  95. "8. Explain the connection between dietary protein
    acid-base balance
  96. 9. Why might increased protein intake contribute to successful weight control?
  97. 10. What are the reasons soyfoods may be heart-healthy alternatives to other protein food choices?
    "The AHA committee says that even though soy protein itself has little direct effect on cholesterol
  98. 11. Explain the controversy over the potential benefits and hazards of increased soy intake in terms of a) menopausal symptoms and b) breast cancer risk
    "soy hasn't been shown to ease hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause. But studies so far haven't provided a clear answer
  99. 12. People with which health problems are advised to limit their protein intake to approximately RDA levels (about 10% of total calories)?
    diabetes or early-stage kidney disease
  100. 13. Under what circumstances might a high protein diet reduce heart disease risk?
    "In fact
  101. Lecture notes � Protein
  102. 14. What protein sources other than the diet appear in the intestine and contribute to the total amount of protein requiring digestion and absorption?
    "Secreted gut protein (enymes
  103. 15. What are the various fates of amino acids absorbed into the body�s amino acid pool? What factors regulate what happens to them?
    "Amino acids are distributed to tissues for synthesis of proteins
  104. 16. What is likely to happen to body weight and urine composition when someone increases protein intake above their requirement without decreasing intake of other calorie sources?
    They should go up because excess proteins act like calories and excess nitrogen from AA will be excreted as urea.
  105. 17. How are protein requirements determined for humans?
    "They are based on the need to maintain existing tissue protein
  106. 18. What are the assumptions made about populations for whom the protein RDA is intended to be a recommendation?
    "Typical mix of dietary protein quality. Assumes that people have a sufficient calorie intake
  107. 19. What is the likelihood a healthy patient eating a Western diet will be protein deficient? What type of patients will be most likely to be protein deficient?
    90% of USA women and 95% of USA men meet or exceed the adult RDA for protein. Almost half of men get double the RDA.
  108. 20. What factors can affect protein requirements and raise them above RDA levels?
    "Bad protein quality
  109. 21. Extensive tissue loss may increase protein requirements by how much in relation to the RDA?
    Up to double the RDA during recovery.
  110. 22. How do the protein requirements of athletes compare to non-athletes in terms of grams required per day?
    Normal RDA- 0.8g/kg or 0.37g/lb. Some athletes may require 50-100% more protein above the RDA. The only situation where dietary protein requirements exceed those for relatively sedentary individuals is in top sport athletes where the maximal requirement is approximately 1.6gPRO/kg/d.
  111. 23. How do the protein requirements of athletes compare to non-athletes in terms of percentage of total calories that should come from protein?
    10-15% of total calories.
  112. 24. What criteria are useful for deciding what dietary protein sources are most healthful?
  113. 25. What are the foods in your diet that are highest in protein per serving?
    "Hamburger (extra lean)
  114. "26. What did the OmniHeart Trial conclude about the cardiovascular effects of diet high in carbohydrate
  115. 27. How can higher protein content help in weight loss and weight maintenance diets?
    High protein diets increase thermogenesis and satiety. Proteins take longer and more energy to metabolize.
  116. 28. How does the protein content of the probable primitive hunter-gatherer diet of human ancestors compare to the current Western diet?
    Western protein- 15.4% of diet. Primitive hunter-gather- 19-35%.
  117. 29. Discuss the issues in the debate about high protein consumption and the health of the liver and kidneys.
    "Early signs of people with diabets or hypertension that eat lots of protein showed signs of kidney disease
  118. 30. What are the potential hazards specific to a high meat protein diet?
    Meats yeild an acidic bicarbonate.
  119. 31. Explain the relationship between foods and acid-alkaline balance in the body.
    "All foods release acidic or bicarbonate. Typical western proteins (fish
  120. 32. What aspects of meat processing and preparation may be especially important for a relationship between meat consumption and cancer?
    "Over cooked meats (high in HCA
  121. "33. In order to effectively reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes
    what dietary protein choices may be important when following a low-carbohydrate diet?"
  122. LPI and Lecture notes � Legumes and Soy
  123. 34. List the common foods that belong to the legume family
    "Foods from the legume family include beans
  124. 35. Name the phytoestrogen family found in soybeans
  125. 36. What are the mechanisms by which legume consumption decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes?
    "diets rich in legumes may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes by improving blood glucose control
  126. 37. Which cardiovascular risk factors are affected by legume consumption?
    "Beans are rich in soluble fiber
  127. 38. What health claim does the FDA allow on labels of foods containing soy?
    �Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 25 grams of soy protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease�
  128. 39. Which cancer appears to be reduced in risk by consumption of both soy and other legumes?
  129. 40. Is soy protein considered a complete protein?
    "soy protein is complete protein
  130. 41. What are the challenges to doing research to answer questions about the benefits and risks of soy consumption?
  131. 42. What is the current status of the understanding about the role of soy in cardiovascular health?
    Soy can lower LDL and help with cholesterol.
  132. 43. What is the current status of the understanding about the role of soy in bone health?
    "Soy looks like it might help
  133. 44. What is the current status of the understanding about the role of soy in thyroid health?
    No real effect seen on thyroid.
  134. 45. What is the current status of the understanding about the role of soy in cancer risk?
    "Only seen to prevent prostate cancer in males
  135. Course notes � Antioxidants and Carotenoids
  136. 1. What are the effects of free radicals in humans? Are they always undesirable?
    "1. These are highly reactive molecular particles that occur in the body under certain conditions. They are very short-lived
  137. 2. What are the important radical and non-radical species in human biology? Why are the non-radicals also potentially hazardous?
    "1. Important oxygen radicals include superoxide
  138. 3. Why are several types of antioxidant systems required to protect human tissues?
    Certain molecules may be better suited to protecting specific tissues or compartments (like fat and water soluable areas).
  139. "4. What antioxidant enzymes are important for preventing cell damage
    and what nutrients are required as cofactors for their function?"
  140. 5. Name the six principal dietary carotenoids. Which ones have vitamin A activity?
  141. 6. List the potentially beneficial functions of carotenoids other than vitamin A activity
    "They are all rich in conjugated double bonds that support antioxidant functions. 1. Effects on inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing differentiation
  142. 7. Which carotenoid supplement is not typically associated with protection from lung cancer according to recent studies?
    Trials of supplementation with large doses of beta-carotene found increased lung cancer risk in smokers (but not in non-smokers). The reasons for the unexpected findings in smokers are still not clear.
  143. 8. Which carotenoid is associated with tomato consumption?
    Alpha- carotene.
  144. 9. Describe the conclusions of clinical trials of beta-carotene supplementation for reducing the risk of various diseases.
    Large doses of synthetic beta-carotene (which represents only one of the naturally-occurring isomers) has provided no protection
  145. 10. Which carotenoids are concentrated in the retina and lens of the eye?
    " Lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the retina
  146. 11. Which carotenoid is most abundant in the North American diet?
  147. 12. Give examples of the major food sources of each of the principal dietary carotenoids.
    "Alpha- Pumpkins carrots and orange stuff (tomatos included). Beta- Carrot
  148. 13. What strategy for taking carotenoid supplements will allow for the best absorption?
    Enhanced when mixed with digestible fat. Impaired when fat digestion or absorption is compromised.
  149. 14. What is the difference between synthetic beta-carotene and beta-carotene extracted from natural sources?
    Little to no research has investigated the benefits or preferability of natural beta-carotene or mixed carotenoids
  150. 15. What methods of food preparation increase the bioavailability of carotenoids?
  151. 16. What is the likelihood that high intake of beta-carotene could lead to vitamin A toxicity?
    "No vitamin A toxicity
  152. 17. Describe the controversy around the effects of combining statin drugs with antioxidant supplements containing beta-carotene?
  153. 18. Give some examples of drugs or foods that might reduce the absorption of carotenoids.
    Drugs that affect normal fat digestin and absorptin like Olestra (undigestible fat).
  154. Nutrition Source & LPI � Fruits and vegetables
  155. 19. Which cardiovascular diseases and risk factors are affected by fruit and vegetable intake?
    lower risk of coronary heart disease (3) and stroke. Lower Blood pressure.
  156. 20. What nutritional components of fruits and vegetables are likely to contribute to their health effects?
    Lower blood pressure.
  157. 21. Why are case-control studies of the relationship between fruit/vegetable intake and cancer less convincing than the results of prospective cohort studies?
    "case-control studies
  158. 22. What are some explanations proposed to account for the disagreement between studies of cancer risk and fruit/vegetable consumption?
    A more likely possibility is that some types of fruits and vegetables may protect against certain cancers.
  159. 23. Which specific vegetables have been associated with protection from which specific cancers?
    "A massive report by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research suggests that non-starchy vegetables�such as lettuce and other leafy greens
  160. 24. Explain the mechanism by which fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against bone loss.
    "higher bone mineral density (BMD) and lower levels of bone resorption. Fruits and vegetables are rich in precursors to bicarbonate ions
  161. 25. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption may prevent which diseases of the eye?
    cataract and macular degeneration
  162. 26. The risk of which chronic lung diseases is lower with higher intake of fruit?
    "higher fruit intakes
  163. 27. What are the five categories of fruits and vegetables that are recommended for daily consumption in order to receive a wide variety of potentially beneficial phytochemicals?
    "dark green
  164. Course Notes and Nutrition Source � Vitamin A
  165. 28. Name the vitamin A molecules referred to as preformed vitamin A.
  166. 29. List the known functions of vitamin A in the human body
    "1. Essential component of rhodopsin
  167. 30. Name the visual pigment formed in part by a vitamin A metabolite
    "Dark green leafy vegetables�such as spinach and kale�contain two pigments
  168. 31. Which biological role of vitamin A results in most of the known physiological roles of this vitamin?
  169. 32. Which cells important for defense against infection do vitamin A compounds support?
    "Vitamin A deficiency impairs innate immunity by impeding normal regeneration of mucosal barriers damaged by infection
  170. 33. What are the most serious consequences worldwide that result from vitamin A deficiency? Are deficiencies such as this common in developed countries?
  171. 34. Why do you think men have a higher RDA for vitamin A than do women?
    Maybe because males are larger than women on average.?????
  172. 35. Why are measures known as Retinol Activity Equivalents or International Units needed to appreciate the total vitamin A activity in foods and supplements?
    Different forms of the vitamin exist with different activites.
  173. 36. What molecular form of preformed vitamin A is found in both food and supplements?
  174. "37. Name the best vitamin A sources from a) fruit/vegetable products
    b) animal products
  175. 38. Why do the Daily Value levels recommended on supplement labels not agree with the most recent RDAs for those micronutrients?
    They are currently based on 1968 RDA's because of the wording of labeling regulations.
  176. 39. What are the symptoms of vitamin A toxicity?
  177. 40. How much higher than the RDA or Daily Value is the tolerable upper level (UL) set by the Institute of Medicine?
    "RDA for men is 900 IU/day and women it is 700IU/day and the UL is10
  178. 41. Describe the special concerns about vitamin A excess during pregnancy.
    Based on preventing birth defects and liver damage; bone loss risk has not been considered yet due to �insufficient evidence.�
  179. 42. Describe the concerns about and the evidence for the effects on bone from high intake of preformed vitamin A.
    "Results from observational studies of the association between vitamin A intake or serum concentration and bone mineral density or fracture are mixed. The inconsistencies may be due
  180. 43. What strategy can be used to look for multivitamin supplements that have safer sources of vitamin A?
    "beta-carotene is not toxic even at high levels of intake. The body can form vitamin A from beta-carotene as needed
  181. Course notes and Online Readings � Vitamin C
  182. 1. List the known functions of vitamin C in the human body.
    "Water-soluble antioxidant
  183. 2. How do the functions of vitamin C explain some of the symptoms of vitamin C deficiency?
    "It's also a powerful antioxidant that can neutralize harmful free radicals
  184. 3. For what individuals is the RDA of Vitamin C higher because of a personal habit?
    Smokers require 35 mg more due to higher oxidative stress.
  185. 4. What amount of vitamin C intake is sufficient to saturate plasma and circulating cells with vitamin C?
    400 mg/day saturates the body�s vitamin C pool
  186. 5. List the best food sources of vitamin C.
    "Orange juice
  187. 6. Why may taking vitamin C supplements not confer the same health protection as a diet high in vitamin C?
    Most vitamin C foods have other good things in them.
  188. 7. In which individuals is vitamin C most likely to help prevent the common cold?
    People with low dietary intake or those under heavy physicaldemands (marathon).
  189. 8. Under what circumstances do vitamin C supplements appear to reduce the duration of the common cold? Under what circumstances do they appear to have little effect?
    "When people who were taking vitamin C in a prevention trial did catch a cold
  190. 9. What is the evidence for a difference between food sources of vitamin C and synthetic ascorbic acid?
    "Natural is identical to synthetic with Vitamin C
  191. 10. What is the justification for recommending mineral ascorbates over ascorbic acid to some people?
    They may be less irritating to sensitive stomachs and may provide small amounts of minerals.
  192. 11. Why are bioflavonoids typically added to some vitamin C supplements unlikely to add very much value to the supplement?
    Usually not enough is added to the supplement to be important.
  193. 12. What is the most likely side effect that would result from ingesting large amounts of vitamin C?
    "There is no serious concerns
  194. 13. Why are in vitro experiments showing the potential for vitamin C to produce free radicals probably irrelevant to conditions found in the human body?
  195. 14. What would be the justification for recommendations from some authorities for a vitamin C intake of 200-400 mg per day?
    "There's no good evidence that megadoses of vitamin C improve health. As the evidence continues to unfold
  196. Course notes and Nutrition Source � Vitamin E
  197. 15. List names of the eight vitamers belonging to the vitamin E family.
    " Four tocopherols (alpha
  198. 16. Describe the different nomenclature used to distinguish between natural and synthetic vitamin E
    Natural- d or RRR stereoisomer. Synthetic- dl or all-rac (all RRR plus 7 other stereoisomers not found in nature).
  199. 17. What are the advantages and disadvantages of vitamin E esterification?
    "They last longer on the shelf
  200. "18. Which vitamin E vitamer is actively maintained in the human body
    and how is this accomplished?"
  201. "19. List the known biological functions of alpha-tocopherol
  202. 20. What physiological problems can cause symptomatic vitamin E deficiency?
    impaired fat absorption or genetic defects of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
  203. 21. What tissues are primarily affected by severe vitamin E deficiency?
  204. 22. How can suboptimal levels of vitamin E be defined and how common is it?
    " Suboptimal intake is common
  205. 23. What are the major food sources of vitamin E in the Western diet?
    "Vegetable oils
  206. 24. When should vitamin E supplements be taken to ensure optimal absorption?
    They should be taken with meals when fat digestion and absorption is optimal.
  207. 25. What might explain the contrasting results of prospective observational studies and intervention studies of vitamin E as a means of preventing heart disease?
    "Research has only used synthetic or alpha- only vitamin E for intervention. the use of drugs such as aspirin
  208. 26. What might be an advantage of using mixed tocopherol forms of vitamin E supplements?
    "Supplementing with large amounts of alpha-tocopherol by itself may cause a deficiency of gamma-tocopherol
  209. 27. What is the most worrisome side effect that is possible from overingestion of vitamin E?
    Anti-platelet effects on blood clotting is the primary issue of concern to healthy people.
  210. 28. When might it be advisable to temporarily discontinue vitamin E supplementation?
    Stopping before elective surgery is suggested.
  211. Course notes � Selenium
  212. 29. Selenium-dependent enzymes are also known as ____________?
    ??? Selenoenzyme???
  213. 30. List the known functions of selenium in the human body.
    1. Substitute for sulfer in cysteine amino acid structures. 2. Activates glutathione peroxidase (this converts unstable peroxides to stable by products). 3. Converts T4- T3 (thyroid hormones). 4. And many other unclear functions.
  214. 31. Which endocrine gland function involves selenium-dependent enzymes?
  215. 32. Maintenance of which vitamins may depend on adequate activity of selenium-dependent enzymes?
    Vitamin E and C.
  216. 33. What are the major food sources of selenium in the Western diet?
    "Abundant protein foods like Brazil nuts
  217. 34. Why may foods produced in some parts of the world be lower in selenium content?
    Potential problems in exist areas of low soil selenium and limited availability of foods from selenium-rich soil
  218. "35. What forms of selenium supplements
    if any
  219. 36. How was the RDA for selenium determined?
    The RDA is based on amounts that will maximize the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the blood of healthy human subjects.
  220. 37. For which cancer is there most evidence that selenium supplements may have a risk-lowering effect in some people?
    "In well-nourished populations
  221. 38. What mechanisms may explain a protective effect of selenium against cancer?
    "antioxidant effects
  222. 39. What symptoms of selenium toxicity are the Upper Tolerable Limit intended to prevent?
    "Brittle hair and nails
  223. 40. Explain why you might make different recommendations for selenium intake to men and women?
    Men might need more to help prevent prostate cancer. ?????
Card Set
nutrition test 2