1. where is ADH hormone produced?
  2. Where is the ADH hormone stored?
    Pituatary Gland
  3. Gland in charge of regulating homeostasis
  4. What disease displayes low levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones, including aldosterone and cortisol?
    Addison's Disease
  5. syndrome caused by an increased production of adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH)
    Cushing's disease
  6. Property of a solution that is influenced by size and shape of the molecules
    (Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Osmotic Pressure, Vapor Pressure)
    Colligative Properties
  7. what is the average water content of total body weight
  8. what are some functions of water?
    • Transport nutrients to cells
    • Removes waste products (Via urination)
    • Acts as body coolant (Via Sweating)
    • Determines Cell Volume
  9. intracellular fluid (ICF) accounts for how much of total body water?
  10. Interior of each cell is separated from the ECF by the?
    Semi-permeable membrane
  11. What disease is characterized by obesity and weak muscles?
    Cushing's syndrome
  12. In what disease do patients display Hyperkalemia (K>) and hyponatremia (<Na)?
    Addison's Disease
  13. Extracellular Fluid (ECF) can be subdivided into?
    Intravascular Fluid (Plasma)

    Interstitial Cell Fluid
  14. Active Transport requires the use of the?
    ATP (Adrenosine Triphosphate) Pump

    *EX. Na-K pump
  15. What kind of fluid movement requires no energy?
  16. passive movement of fluid from a lower concentration to a higher concentration
  17. what system is in charge of vaso-constriction?
    Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
  18. Juxtaglomerular (Granular Cells) secrete what hormone?
  19. Angiotensin II stimulates the production of what hormone?
  20. what effect does aldosterone have on blood pressure?
    Raises Blood pressure
  21. Aldosterone regulates the?
    reabsorbtion of water and sodium within the nepron
  22. what is the vaso-dilator?
    Atrial natriuretic peptide
  23. what is the bodies response to increases osmolality?
    • 1. ADH secretion
    • 2. Sensation of thirst
  24. Diabetes Insipidus is a deficiency of what hormone?
    ADH (Vasopressin)

    *results in Hypernatremia and dehydration
  25. what are the normal ranges for plasma osmolality?
    275-295 millimoles/kg
  26. Osmolality is based on the ___________ of solutes
  27. what is the clinical significance of Osmolality?
    • Measures the sodium concentration in the plasma
    • (sodium associated with 90% of osmotic activity in plasma)
  28. Why is sodium so important in the plasma?
    Associated with 90% of all osmotic activity in the plasma
  29. Name some colligative properties
    Freezing point

    Boiling Point

    Vapor Pressure

    Osmotic Pressure
  30. clinical significance of excess water intake

  31. clinical significance of water deficit
    Hyper osmolality

  32. in what type of patients does hypernatremia become a concern?
    • patients who are unable to drink or ask for water
    • -infants
    • -unconscious patients
    • -diminished mental patients
  33. why is plasma not a good specimen for osmolality?
    possible anticoagulant contamination
  34. why is serum osmolality measured?
    to compare to your urine osmolality
  35. most common principle for osmometers?
    • freezing point depression
    • standarized using NaCl reference solution
  36. How does vapor pressure osmolality work?
    the more solute a solution has, the longer it takes to evaporate, therefore one can determine the concentration of a solution based on the evaporation rate
  37. what is the formula for calculating osmolality?
    (1.86*Na) + (Glucose/18) + (BUN/2.8) = Osmolality
  38. what kind of electrolytes migrate towards the cathode?
    • Cations
    • -Na
    • -Ca
    • -K
    • -Mg
  39. what electrolytes migrate towards the anodes
    • Anions
    • -Cl
    • -HCO3
    • -PO4
    • -SO4
  40. what electrolytes are used for body hydration?
    • -Na
    • -Cl
    • -K
  41. what electrolytes are used for enzyme activation?
    • -Mg
    • -Ca
    • -Zn
  42. what electrolytes are used for neuromuscular activity
    • -Ca
    • -K
    • -Mg
  43. what are some extracellular ions?
    • -Na
    • -Cl
    • -Ca
    • -HCO3
  44. what are some intracellular ions?
    • -K
    • -PO4
    • -Mg
    • -Ca
  45. what is the primary function of Na?
    Body hydration
  46. approximately how much filtered Na is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?
  47. how does Na help preserve the ECF volume?
    Attracts fluid to itself and distributes it throughout the body
  48. what is the recommended daily intake for Na?
    2,400 - 4,500 mg Na/day
  49. what is the renal threshold for Na?
    110 - 130 mmol/L
  50. what does primary aldosteronism result in?
    increased Na in the ECF

    increased excretion of K (causing a decrease of K in ECF)
  51. what are the 3 processes for regulation of Na?
    • -intake of water (thirst)
    • -excretion of water (urination)
    • -blood volume status
  52. what is hyponatremia?
    deficiency of Na in the blood

    -serum/plasma level <135 mmol/L
  53. what disease involves inadequate secretion of aldosterone?
    Addisons's disease
  54. what disorder displays
    -poor skin turgur
    -decreased jugular venous pressure
    -dry mucuous membranes
    Hypovolemic Hyponatremia
  55. what is hypernatremia?
    increased amount of Na in the blood

    > 150 mmol/L
  56. Hypernatremia involves symptoms that mostly affect the?
    Central Nervous System (CNS)
  57. treatment for Hypernatremia MUST be done gradually, otherwise it will cause?
    cerebral edema and death
  58. symptoms of hyponatremia with serum readings of 125 - 130 mmol/L involve what kind of problems?
  59. where is K predominantly found?
    inside RBC's
  60. What are some functions of K
    Neuromuscular excitability

    -Ex. Contraction of the heart
  61. what would cause an increase in K into the ECF
    • anything that lyses your RBC's allowing K out of the membrane
    • -severe trauma

    -tumor lysis syndrome

    -massive blood transfusion
  62. what is hyperkalemia?
    increased K in the blood
  63. what is hypokalemia?
    defficiency of K in the blood

    < 3 mmol/L
  64. What are some functions of Cl
    maintain osmolality

    blood volume

    electric neutrality
  65. what is the osmolal gap?
    the difference between the measured and calculated osmolality
  66. electrolytes differ in concentration throughout the body but the totals balance to achieve a neutral electrical charge, this is known as?
  67. Cushings syndrome is predominantly seen in what gender?
  68. reference range for chloride in the plasma/serum?
    98 - 107 mmol/L
  69. reference range for Cl in a 24 hr. urine collection?
    110 - 250 mmol/day
  70. What electrolyte passively follows Na?

    Na+ Cl- (positive attracts negative)
  71. disoder displaying the OBSTRUCTION of the exocrine glands, including sweat glands, mucous glands and pancreas, recessively inherited in infants and children
    Cystic Fibrosis
  72. most common diagnostic tool for cystic fibrosis?
    Sweat Chloride test
  73. What % of P is located in the bone?
  74. What is so crucial about P?
    facilitates Oxygen delivery to the tissues

    assists in phagocytosis

    healthy bones and teeth
  75. What vitamin increases P in the blood?
    vitamin D

    increases P absorbtion in the intestines and the kidneys
  76. what hormone lowers the concentration of P in the blood?
    Parathyroid hormone
  77. Hyperphosphatemia is commonly seen in patients with?
    Lymphoblastic anemia
  78. the average human body contains _____ g of Mg
  79. what hormone aids in the expulsion of Mg from the body?
Card Set
MLT-10005, Electrolytes