Syntax Files F2

  1. basic passives
    • applies to simple transitive verbs
    • theme argument is realized as subject
    • agent argument downgraded to oblique/suppressed
  2. impersonal passives
    no argument is upgraded following downgrading of agent
  3. expletive
    • 'non-referring' element equivalent to English it or there
    • It seems that there are three people at the door.
  4. pseudo-passive
    subject corresponds to object of preposition in matching active structures

    • active: several people have already talked about that idea.
    • passive: that idea has already been talked about by several people.
  5. indirect or adversity (adversative) passive
    • experiencer occurs as subject
    • frequently have an 'adversative' meaning in that the referent of the subject is seen as adversely affected by situation described in sentence
Card Set
Syntax Files F2
Syntax Files 3rd Test F2