nutrition questions test 2

  1. what are the healthiest sources of carbohydrates?
    • grains that are intact and are unprocessed
    • ex: whole wheat bread, brown rice, whole grain pasta, whole oats, bulgur, kasha, quinoa
  2. how do the effects of a high carb diet depend on the body weight and physical activbity of the individual consuming that diet?
    • carb diets have different effects on lean active people than they do on overweight sedentary people due to the lack of exercise which ultimately leads to:
    • increased refined carbs-> increased weight, increased fatigue, decreased energy from food
  3. what are the effects of a diet high in refined catbs on serum lipid values such as triglycerides and HDL cholesterol?
    • increase insulin
    • increase triglycerides
    • decrease HDL
  4. in contrast to the old system of classifying carbs as either simple or complex, what is a better way of distinguishing healthy from unhealthy carbs?
    • high vs low glycemic index foods
    • whether they come from refined or whole grains
  5. list the seven most common carb sources in the average american diet
    • cake/donuts/pastries
    • pizza
    • potato chips/popcorn
    • rice
    • beer
    • french fries
  6. explain how a meal rich in easily-digested catbs can eventually result in low blood sugar levels and an early return of hunger
    • the resulting flood of insulin can drive glucose levels way down. if there is not anymore digestable carbs in the stomach or the intestines your gut and brain send out hunger signals to make you grab more food even though your liver is releasing stored glucose
    • increase glucose=> increase insulin=> decrease blood glucose
  7. explain how insulin resistance affects pancreastic function
    • resistance to insulni keeps blood glucose at high levels for longer periods of time and forces the pancreas to produce extra insulin in order to jam glucose into cells
    • the insulin making cells in the pancrease may wear out from this abuse and eventually they may stop producing insulin all together (type 2 DM)
  8. list the important contributors to the development of insulin resistance
    • obesity
    • inactivity
    • dietary fats
    • genetics
  9. what health problems other than blood sugar disorders have been associated with insulin resistance
    • hypertension
    • increased triglycerides
    • decreased HDL
    • CVD
    • cancer
  10. what do measurmentfs of the glycemic index of different sources of carbs tell us about the similarities and differences between sugars and complex carbs?
    • simple sugars increase glycemic index
    • complex sugars increase and decrease glycemic index
  11. which complex carb foods have a very high glycemic index
    • pancakes
    • total cereal
    • grape nuts
    • raisin bran
    • cheerios
    • shredded wheat
  12. what is the difference between glycemic index and glycemic load and which one appears to be a more accurate indicator of the effects of a food on blood sugar?
    • glycemic load= GIXCarbs in grams/100
    • glycemic load is more accurate
  13. when calculating the glycemic index, a control or reference food is given the value of 100 for comparison. what are the two foods used in different tables as the reference food
    • glucose
    • white bread
  14. what characteristics of a carb containing food determines it glycemic index or load?
    • amount of gelatin starch
    • how processed it is
    • fiber content
    • fat content
  15. which micronutrients are depleted by more than 50% when whole wheat flour is refined into unenriched white flour
    • vitamin E
    • B6
    • magnesium
    • riboflavin
    • niacin
    • fiber
    • zinc
    • potassium
    • iron
    • copper
  16. risk for which disease can be lowered with a diet hig hin whole or intact grains
    • CVD
    • GI problems such as diverticulosis
    • diabetes
    • speculated that it can lower risk of come cancers
  17. list all the possible mechanisms that may explain the role of whole grains in preventing disease
    • delays absorption of glucose
    • eases the workload of the insulin producing cells in the pancrease
    • lowers blood cholesterol levels
    • increases the bodies natural anticoagulants -> decreased clot formation
    • antioxidants such as vit E prevent LDLs from reacting with oxygen
    • phytoestrogens -> protection from some cancers
    • bran layer contains essential minerals -> decreaseing the risk of CVD and DM
  18. what terms may be used in an ingredients label of a food product to indicate that refine flour was used in that product?
    • low carb
    • made with whole flour
  19. what terms must only be used when a whole grain flour product is used
    • whole wheat
    • whole oats
    • whole rye
    • whole grain
  20. why is the glycemic index an improvement over other ways of classifying carbs>
    becuase blood glucose response to complex carbs has been found to vary considerably. a more accurate indicator of the relative glycemic response to dietary carbs is the glycemic index
  21. how does a high glycemic index food increase the liklihood of hypoglycemia after a meal
    • repid increase in blood glucose -> incrase insulin released from the pancreas
    • over the next few hours the high insulin levels induced by consumption of high glycemic index foods may cause a sharp decrease in blood glucose levels
  22. what measurment is used along with the glycemic index to arrive at the glycemic load of a food
    the amount of carbs in grams
  23. how does a high glycemic load diet influcence the development of diabetes
    increased secretion of insulin overtime adds insult to the insulin producing cells in the pancrease and can lead to deceased pancreas function
  24. in large prospective studies of nurses and male health professionals, which foods were most consistently associated with increased risk of DM
    • potatoes
    • white rice
    • white bread
    • carbonated sweet beverages
  25. what are the benefits of low glycemic load diets in the treatment of existing diabetes
    increased control of blood glucose -> decreased episodes of hypoglycemia
  26. what lipid abnormalitites and other cardiovascular risk factors are associated with a high glycemic load diet
    • decreased HDL
    • increased triglycerides
    • increased C-reactive proteins (systemic inflammatory marker)
  27. what type of individual of individual is likely to be most susceptible to the adverse cardiovascular effects of a high glycemic load diet?
    overweight females
  28. what are the probably mechanisms by which a low glycemic load diet improves the results of weight loss
    feeling of feeling full for longer periods of time -> decreased food comsumption
  29. what changes from a typical western diet would still allow consumption of foods high in carbs while lowering the overall glycemic load of the diet
    • increaseing the consumption of : whole grains, nuts, legumes, fruits, constarchy vegetables
    • decreasing the comsumption of : potatoes, white rice, white bread, sugary foods like cookies, cakes, candy and soft drinks
  30. name the types of compunds that share many of the characteristics of dietary fiber but have not typically been included in the definition of dietary fiber
    • indigestable carbs from animal sources
    • synthetic indigestible carbs that are inaccesable to human digestive enzymes
  31. contrast the way observational research has typically studied fiber from the way intervention research has typically studied fiver
    • observational studies looked at fiber rich foods
    • interventional studies have isolated pure fiber
  32. what is meant by the term functional fiber
    isolated or synthetic fibers that may be added to foods or used as supplements
  33. what health-promoting properties are associated with viscous fiber
    • ability to delay stomach emptying
    • delaying nutrient absorption
    • decreased serum cholesterol
  34. what health promoting properties are associated with fermentable fiber
    • increased amount of bacteria in colon
    • formation of short chained fatty acids which are used for energy
  35. what fiber containing foods and fiber supplements lower LDLs
    • legumes
    • oat products
    • supplements: pectin, guar gum, psyllium
  36. what is the effect of adding viscous fiber to a meal on subsequent blood glucose and insulin levels, compare to a meal lacking viscous fiber
    shows a significant positive change in the glucose/insulin response which leads to smaller but more sustained increases in blood glucose and significantly lower insulin levels
  37. what fiber containing foods and fiver supplements consistently increase stool bulk, shorten transit time, and effectively treat constipation
    • wheat bran
    • fruits
    • veggies
    • cellulose
    • psyllium
  38. what is the clinical significance of diverticular disease and what type of fiber appears to provide the strongest protection from this disease
    • causes pockets/pouches in the colon which can become inflammed when food particles become trapped
    • non-viscous dietary fiber (cellulose)
  39. based on research on women consuming high fiber, low fat diets, how might these diets play a role in breast cancer prevention
    by decreasing circulating estrogen levels by increasing the excretion of estrogens and promoting the metabolism of estrogens to less estrogenic forms NO SOLID EVIDENCE ON THIS THOUGHT
  40. by what mechanism might a high fiber diet help prevent weight gain or promote weight loss
    • probides less energy
    • extending the feeling of fullness after a meal
  41. what are the best food sources of soluble/viscous fiver
    • oat products
    • legumes
  42. what are the best food sources of insoluble/nonviscous fiber
  43. what is meant by the term prebiotics and which fiber supplements are given this classification
    • substances with the ability to stimulate the growth of bifidobactera in the colon
    • insulins and oligofructoses
  44. what health clain about psyllium is approved by the FDA
  45. decreased risk of CVD
  46. what strategies may hellp people avoid gastrointestinal side effets of increasing their fiber intake
    increased water intake to 2 liters/day
  47. what straegy will help avoid interactions between fiber and medications
    • add intake of kaolin-pectin
    • take medications 1 hour before or 2 hours after fiber intake
  48. what component of cereal fiber is thought to be responsible for the effect of fiber on mineral absorption
  49. list the beneficial compounds present in abundance in whole grains
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • phytochemicals
    • lignans
    • phytoesterols
    • fiber
  50. what changes in fasting insulin levels and other measures of insulin resistance occur on a diet low in whole grains and high in refined grains
    increased insulin resistance
  51. in prospecitve studies of coronary heart disease risk, what whole grain foods were associated with reduced risk
    • dark bread
    • whole grain cereal
    • popcorn
    • oatmeal
    • brown rice
    • bran
    • barley
    • bulgar
    • kasha
  52. fiber from which whole grains appears to improve total and LDL levels
    oat fiber
  53. how do phytosterols in whole grains cause a decrease in serum cholesterol
    they interfere with intestinal adsorption of cholesterol
  54. by what mechanisms may constituents of whole grains reduce the risk of some types of cancer
    • accelerate the passage of poop thru the colon
    • decrease contact time of carcinogens
    • lignans in whole grain = phytoestrogens-> decreased hormone dependent cancer
    • phenolic compounds modify signal transduction pathway- alters metal
  55. other than cancer, what intestinal disorders may be prevented by diets rich in whole grains and what biochemical or physiological mechanisms are involved
    • decreased constipation-> softens and adds bult to poop which speeds transit time out of the colon
    • decreased diverticulosis risk
  56. what strategies can be used to make sure whole grian foods are purchased when shoping
    • items that list whole grain as #1 ingredient
    • >>2 grams of fiber/serving
    • beneficial health claims such as: 51% or greater whole grain by weight
  57. list some other strategies for increasing whole grain intake
    • whole grain (breakfast cereals, bread, crackers, pasta, flour)
    • brown rice
    • barley
  58. which high protein foods are considered the healthiest choices
    • fish
    • chicken
    • beans
    • nuts
  59. what is meant by an incomplete protein
    • lacking one or more essential amino acids
    • vegetable proteins are often incomplete
  60. how does the typical protein intake on a western diet compare with daily protein requirements
    typically have more protein than what is needed
  61. which foods have the highest percentage of calories from protein
    • water packed tuna
    • roasted chicken
    • low fat cottage cheese
    • broiled top serloin
    • salmon filet
  62. what are the important differences between animal and vegetable sources of protein in terms of their effects on health and disease
    alone they are the same but the packaging of animal sources of protein often includes incrased saturated fat
  63. what type sof cooking may increase the risk of cancer from eating meat
    • frying
    • grilling to death can cause and incrase in carcinogens
  64. list the possible mechanisms behind the cardio protective benefits of eating nut
    • unsaturated fats lecreased LDL increase HDL
    • omega-3 decrease blood clotting
  65. what are the environmental arguments for making certain choices amoung different protein foods
    • vegetable proteins are more efficient
    • increased requirements to feed beef/meat sources
  66. what were the findings of the nurses health study regarding the effects of protein intake on the risk of heart disease
    an increase in protein intake leads to a 25% decrease in the likelihood to have a MI vs decreased protein intake
  67. why might increased protin intake contribute to successful weight control
    • chicken, beef, fish decrease stomach emptying and therefore you have longer satiety
    • protein has a low glycemic index
  68. how does protein intake affect calcium balace in teh bode
    increased protein intake requires calcium to neutralize acids and this calcium is pulled from bone and this may have long term effects
  69. extensive tissue loss may increase protein requirements by how much in relation to RDA
    up to 2X of RDA
  70. how do the protein requirements of athletes compare to non-athletes in terms of grams required per day
    increased requirements ni athletes can be met by increased caloric intake with normal proportions of protein (10-15% of total calories)
  71. how do the protein requirements of athletes compare to non-athletes in terms of percentage of total calories that should come from protein
    • endurance exercises: 1.2-1.4 g protein/kg body mass per day (150% RDA)
    • strength exervises: 1.7-1.8g protein/kg body mass per day (220%)
  72. what are the pros and cons of a high protein diet for normalizing flucose intolerance, weight loss, and/or dyslipidemia
    • normalizing glucose intolerance- substititing lean protein for carbohydrates with decreased glucose intolerance
    • weight loss- substituting lean protein for carbs increases HDL and decreasing LDL
    • dyslipidemia- need to watch which protein s you use! favor plants or animal proteins
  73. what are the potential consequences of avery high meat protein diet
    • increased risk of lung, colon, breat, nonhydgkin lymphoma (especially if over done)
    • increased risk of kidney stones
    • suggested upper limit of protein intake is no more than 2X RDA suggested intake
  74. list the common foods that belong to the legume famil
    • beans
    • peas
    • lentils
    • soybeans
    • peanuts
  75. name the phytoestrogens family found in soybeans
  76. what are the mechanisms by which legume consumption decreases the risk of type 2 DM
    legumes have a relatively low glycemic index
  77. which cardiovascular risk factors are affected by legume consumption
    it improves serum lipid and lipoprotein files
  78. what health claims does the FDA allow on labels of foods containing soy
    diest low in saturated fat and cholesterol with 25g soy protein a day may decrease CVD risk
  79. which cancer appears to be reduced in risk by consumption of both soy and other legumes
    • prostate cancer
    • breast cancer
  80. is soy protein considered a complete protein
    yes soy protein is considered a complete protein becuase it contains all of the essential amino acids
  81. which cardiovascular disease and risk factors are affected by fruit and vegetable intake
    • decreased CVD
    • decreased incidence of MI
    • decreased hypertension
  82. what nutritional components of fruits and veggies are likely to contribule to their health effects
    • vit C
    • folate
    • potassium
    • fiber
    • phytochemicals
  83. why are case control studies of the relationship between fruit/veggie intake and cancer less convincing than the results of prospective cohort studies
    case control studies showed positive results of increased fruit/veggies with decreased cancer however, the study leaves room for bised sampling
  84. what are some explanations proposed to accound for the disagreement between studeis of cancer risk and fruit/veggie consumption
    • problems with population bias
    • showed reduction in individual cancers
  85. which specific vegetables have been associated with protection from which specific cancers
    • increased fruit-> decreased lung cacner
    • increased cruciferous vegetables -> decreased bladder cancer
    • increased totatoes-> decreased prostate cancer
  86. explain the mechanism by which fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against bone loss
    fruit and vegetables are high in bicarbonate which can be used as a buffer to keep calcium levels high
  87. increased fruit and vegetable consumption may prevent which disease of the eye
    • cataracts
    • macular degeneration
  88. which foods are associated with protection agains chronic obstructive lung disease
    higher fruit intakes, especially apple intakes, are associated with higher forced expiratory volume values, indicative of better lung function
  89. name the six principal dietary carotenoids. which ones have vitamin A activity
    • alpha carotene (A)
    • beta carotene (A)
    • beta cryptoxanthin (A)
    • lutein
    • zeaxanthin
    • lycopene
  90. list the potentially beneficial functions of carotenoids other than vitamin A activity
    • antioxidant
    • light filtering
    • intercellular communication
    • immune system activity
  91. which carotenoid is not typically associated with protection from lung cancer according to recent studeis
    beta carotene
  92. which caroteinoid is associated with tomato consumption
  93. describe the conclusions of slinical trials of beta carotene supplementation for reducing the risk of various disease
    • experts feel that the risks of high does beta carotene supplementation outweight any potential benefits for cancer prevention
    • especially in smokers or other high risk populations
  94. which arotenoids are concerntrated in the retina and lens of the eye
    • lutein
    • zeaxanthin
  95. which carotenoid is the most abundant in the north american diet
    • alpha carotene
    • beta carotene
    • beta cryptoxanthin
    • lutein
    • zeaxanthin
    • lycopene
  96. examples of alpha and beta carotene
    • squash
    • spinach
    • carrots
  97. examples of beta cryptoxanthin
    • pumpkin
    • red peppers
    • oranges
  98. examples of lycopenes
    • tomatoes
    • pink grapefruit
    • watermelon
  99. examples of lutein and zeaxanthin
    • spinach
    • kale
    • turnip
    • greens
  100. what strategy for taking carotenoid supplements will allow for the best absorption
    they are best absorbed with a meal containing fat
  101. what is the difference between synthetic beta carotene and beta carotene extracted from natural sources
    the supplmental form of beta carotene has higher vitamin A actibity
  102. what methods of food preparation increase th ebioavailability of carotenoids
    • chopping
    • homogenizing
    • cooking
    • heating tomatoes in oil
Card Set
nutrition questions test 2
nutrition questions test 2