1. This is defined as contact of the mouth with other objects.
  2. The major types of mouthing are ____ and _____ mouthing.
    • hand
    • object
  3. Problematic mouthing occurs at _____ rates across settings.
  4. The likelihood of mouthing is _________ depending on the individual's independence with leisure, mobility, and life skills.
  5. Mouthing is part of human development from prior to ____ months of age to ___ years of age.
    • 12 months
    • 2 years
  6. Infants with intellectual disabilities begin mouthing ______ compared to non-ID infants; between 12-36 months of age.
  7. Theories of _________ include homeostasis, increased tactile sensitivity, and operant causes (escape & attention).
  8. ________ is defined as the presence of saliva outside the mouth.
  9. Etiology of ________ has been associated with physical problems (cerebral palsy, dysphagia and poor posture), side effects of medication, mouthing behavior, or operant causes.
  10. _________ is defined as excessive water or fluid intake.
  11. Factors associated with __________ are polyuria (excessive urination), osmolality (increased body water concentration), and hyponatremia (dangerous decrease in body salt levels).
  12. The prevalence of polydipsia in people with ID is __ - __%
    3.5 - 6.2 %
  13. Polydipsia has pathophysiology similar to _________, possibly related to problems in the thalamic brain region.
  14. __________ is defined as chronic regurgitation, re-chewing, and swallowing food.
  15. Rumination is involved in involuntary regurgitation or operant vomiting?
    Rumination is NOT involved in EITHER ONE. It is unique (chronic regurgitation, re-chewing and swallowing of food)
  16. The prevalence of rumination is ____ - ____ % of children with severe or profound ID.
  17. Etiologies of ___________ include sensory stimulation, attention, escape, and problems with eating behavior (too quickly, not chewing, etc.).
  18. ___________ is defined as the repeated eating of nonnutritive substances for at least 1 month.
  19. ________ is common in typically developing infants younger than 4 years of age.
  20. The prevalence of pica in children living in the community is _________ %
  21. __________ is the use of words in an uncommunicative manner.
  22. __________ __________ is a normal part of language development but dissipates around 3 years of age.
    Echoic behavior
  23. ____________ is classified as immediate or delayed.
    Echolalia (e.g. immediate= parrot speech, delayed= relevant quote from a movie etc.)
  24. Theories of __________ include a failure to acquire appropriate speech resulting in not knowing when or how to respond, escape, attention, self-instruction, and an imprecise form of communication.
  25. The prevalence of echolalia is _______% in ID populations
  26. Treatment for __________ includes Differential Reinforcement for appropriate speech, prompts and prompt fading, verbal reprimands, response cost, and treatment packages such as cue-pause-point
  27. __________ ______________ are unintelligble sounds, words, phrases, or sentences which can result in a variety of negative effects.
    Disruptive vocalizations (DV)
  28. Types of ________________ include perseverative or loud vocalizations, complaints, threats, taunting, teasing, and swearing.
    Disruptive vocalizations (DV)
  29. Consequences of __________________ include aggression directed toward the individual and loss of school placement or employment.
    Disruptive vocalizations (DV)
  30. ___________ is one of the most prevalent aberrant (deviation from accepted norms) behavior in community settings.
    Disruptive Vocalizations (DV)
  31. ______________ is often part of a response class that includes aggression and self-injury.
    Disruptive Vocalizations (DV)
  32. Treatment for Disruptive Vocalizations maintained by auditory stimulation = ______________
    sensory extinction
  33. Treatment for Disruptive Vocalizations maintained by imitation = ____________
    altering the environment
  34. Treatment for Disruptive Vocalizations maintained by positive Reinforcement = ___________
    Differential Reinforcement of appropriate speech
  35. Treatment for Disruptive Vocalizations maintained by negative reinforcement (escape) = _____*there are several*_________
    errorless learning, task variety, choice functional communication training, Differential Reinforcement, & escape extinction
  36. _______________ are defined as a child's inability or refusal to eat or drink sufficient quantities to maintain nutritional status regardless of etiology.
    Feeding Disorders
  37. A typically developing infant triples their weight in the _________ year and gains _ pounds per year for __-__ years.
    • first;
    • 5 pounds;
    • 3-4 years
  38. children can start eating solid food by ________ years old.
    1 year
  39. Pediatricians are usually the first to identify this disorder:
    Feeding Disorder
  40. Height/weight ratios are used to determine ___________
  41. "___________" means having a height-weight ratio below the ____th percentile.
    • failure to thrive;
    • 5th
  42. The primary causes of _________________ tend to be organic, such as: structural, metabolic, and GI abnormalities, mechanical obstructions, dysphagia, chronic illness, and GER.
    Feeding Disorder
  43. Secondary causes of ___________________ are behavioral and include avoidance of pain or aversive stimuli associated with mealtimes, access to attention or tangibles, or skill deficits with feeding (swallowing, chewing, self-feeding).
    Feeding disorder
  44. Most cases of Feeding Disorder are a combination of ___________ and ______________ causes.
    organic and behavioral
  45. The prevalence of feeding disorders in children with ID is up to _______%
  46. Feeding disorders are classified by food ________, food _______ by type/texture, and oral _____ ______.
    • refusal;
    • selectivity;
    • motor delays
  47. Behaviors associated with ____________ are spitting food, hitting/throwing food and untesils, covering mouth, vomiting and tantrums.
    feeding disorders
  48. Treatment for ______________ include reinforcement for food acceptance, non-removal of spoon, eliminating grazing, shaping types and textures, and ignoring tantrums.
    feeding disorders
  49. Research demonstrates that behavioral treatment of feeding disorders are __________ for children.
    mostly very effective..& can lead to taking children off feeding tubes
  50. A majority of parents found feeding disorder treatment ____________ and ________ to implement.
    • effective;
    • BUT difficult
  51. ____________ is defined as repeated voiding of urine during day (diurnal) or night (nocturnal), into bed or clothes, whether involuntary or intentional.
  52. _____________ is repeated passage of feces into places not appropriate for that purpose, whether involuntary or intentional.
  53. To be diagnosed with enuresis, the behavior must occur ______ a month for children 5-6 years old and ____ per month for older children. Child MUST be at least __ years old.
    • twice;
    • once;
    • 5 years old
  54. To be diagnosed encopresis, the behavior must occur _____ per month or more for at least ____ months. Child MUST be at least __ years old.
    • once;
    • 6 months;
    • 4 years old
  55. Enuresis and encopresis do NOT involve the presense of_______________
    physical causes
  56. Normal bladder control is established at ___ years old.
  57. Normal bowel control is established at ___ years old.
  58. The prevalence of Enuresis in Non-ID children: age 5: 7: 9: 12-14:
    • prevalence of Encopresis in non-ID children: age 3: 4: 5:
    • 5:15% 7:7% 9:3% 12-14:1-2% ;
    • 3:75% are clean 4:86% are clean 5: 93% are clean!
  59. Cultural trends suggest that potty training is occuring ____ than in previous decades. Possible explanations include: increased ownership of washing machines, disposable diapers, parent schedules, and Dr. Spock style parenting.
  60. The effects of _______________ include rashes, bed sores, constipation, urinary tract infection, bowel damages, soreness, negative care-giver-child interactions, and social avoidance.
    elimination disorders.
  61. In institutions, _____________ was associated with group size, ease of access to bathrooms, negative modeling, behavioral states, and passivity.
  62. Medication, anxiety, and caffeine have been associated with _______________.
  63. In treatment, fluid intake would be increased for __________. For __________, fluids would be restricted before bedtime.
    • encopresis;
    • enuresis
  64. An important part of _____________ is assessing and teaching dressing skills.
    toilet training
  65. For treating _______________, a bell and bad device has been effective
    nocturnal enuresis
  66. The simplest form of toilet training is _______________
    schedule training
  67. __________________________________ means having an individual practive the correct response ( an appropriate alt. behavior) multiple times upon occurrence of a mistake (or inappropropriate behavior).
    Positive Practice Overcorrection
  68. ______________ is useful when it is unclear if the misbehavior is a skill or motivational deficit.
    Positive Practice
  69. positive practice is useful for _________ deficits because it reduces practice time, determines problems with the response performance, and allows emphasis on the correct response.
  70. positive practice is useful for _________ deficits because it increases the likelihood of the correct response due to the adeded effort associated with the misbehavior, decreases carelessness, and emphasis on the correct behavior.
  71. No reinforcement should be allowed during ___________
    positive practice
  72. the duration of positive practice depends on the __________ and ________ severity of the misbehavior.
    frequency and severity
  73. ______________ is having an individual restore an environment to a better condition than prior to the occurence of the misbehavior.
    Restitution overcorrection
  74. ___________ can teach a person responsibility, independence, and social restitution.
  75. __________ guidance can be used if the individual is non-compliant.
  76. The effectiveness of overcorrection is _____________ when it is a routine consequence for misbehavior.
  77. _________ is defined as difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep for at least a month which causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning.
  78. The prevalence of sleep problems in children with autism is _____-____ % (most likely on test)
  79. ______________ refers to normal daily activities that occur close to bedtime. Examples of poor ___________ include exercise, watching t.v. or playing on the computer.
    Sleep Hygiene
  80. __________________ disorder refers to child behavior problems at bedtime that result from failure of parents to set limits on the child's sleep and associated behaviors.
    limit setting
  81. The human circadian rhythm is a __ hour cycle. Therefore, we follow external cues to "reset" our internal clocks. this is known as _______
    • 25;
    • entrainment
  82. __________________ disorder is characterized of a child needing some object (such as a pacifier) or activity (being rocked) in order to fall asleep.
    sleep onset association d/o
  83. Sleep __________ can lead to irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, attention deficits, memory problems, anxiety, depression, obsessions, headaches, fatigue, obesity, GI upset, enuresis, infections, motor problems, and delayed growth.
  84. There are two types of sleep: _______ and _________. A person transitions back and forth from each state.
    • REM;
    • NREM (Not REM?)
  85. ________ sleep is associated with dreaming and later in the sleep cycle;
    • ________ sleep is deep sleep that is usually associated earlier in the sleep cycle.
    • REM;
    • NREM (Not REM sleep?)
  86. _____________ are associated with Deep sleep in the 1st half of the night: piercing screams and intense fear
    Night terrors
  87. ____________ are associated with early morning (In REM sleep) and arousal based on a frightening dream.
  88. ___________ extinction is widely researched and shown effective but can be difficult for parents to implement.
  89. Establishing a healthy bedtime _______ is the first step in setting good sleep habits.
Card Set
ID PSYCH TEST_3 (elimination d/o, etc.)