Autoimmune dz affect what part of the kidney?
Drugs and toxins affect what part of the kidney?
- Interstistium and tubules
Chronic or acute
What are the 5 types of Lupus Nephritis?
5 types of Lupus Nephritis?
- No change/minima
- Focal Proliferative
- DIffuse Proliferative--most common TYpe IV
- Membraneous--GBM involvement
Wire Loop Glomeruli are seen in what systemic autoimmune disease?
Which Lupus nephritis has cresents?
Diffuse proliferative nephritis
PAS positive mesangial cells are seen in what disorder?
Plasma cell Dycriasis
Bence Jones tubular casts are seen in what condition?
MM affecting the kidney--amorphous pink material
Subendothelial and mesangial deposits of criss-cross fibrillary pattern are seen in what condition of the kidney?
Flea bitten kidney results from what kidney condition?
What accounts for the flea bitten appearance of the kidney?
petechial hemorrhages of the glomeular of tubular capillaries
What are the 2 pathological changes seen in the blood vessels of malignant hypertension?
- fibrinoid necrosis---fibrin, neutrophils
- Onion skinning----collagen, proteoglycans, plasma proteins
Cause of Renal artery stenosis?
Atherosclerosis differes from Fibromuscular dysplasia how?
- FMD--women in 3rd or 4th decade
- Atherosclerosis--men in 5th or 6th decade
WHat makes up the casts and obstructs the lumen of the tubule?
necrotic epithelial cells after they loose their polarity from ischemia
Eosinophilic casts are indicative of what kidney disorder?
Interstitial nephritis due to drug hypersensitivity
What kind of ischemic injury to epithelial cells lining tubules is seen in toxin caused acute kidney necrosis?
- PCT and ascending loop of henle
Rupture of basement membrane i.e tubulorrhexis is seen in what acute tubular necrosis? Toxin or ischemic?
What is responsible for oliguria in Acute tubular necrosis?
sloughed off epithelial cells blocking the lumen of the tubule
What electrolyte disturbance is seen in the 1st or initiation stage of ATN?
- metabolic acidosis
- Azotemia--BUN and Creatitine increased
Muddy brown granular casts are indicative of what?
Acute tubular necrosis
WBC casts arre indiciative of what?
pyelonephritis and transplant rejection
RBC casts are indicative of what?
2 Causes for Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
2 types of Acute tubular necrosis?
- Toxigenic---Drugs, x ray contrast, myoglobin and other foreign substances
What is the pattern of damage in ischemic vs toxic tubular necrosis?
- ischemic--all parts of nephron affected
- Toxic--only proximal part if affected
WHat is acute pyelonephritis?
- infection of renal pelvis
2 causes for Renal artery stenosis?
- fibromuscular dysplasia
What virulence factors are needed by bacteria to colonize distal urethra/
4 virulence factors of h.pylori?
- coxa gene
What are the p?redisposing factors to acute pyelonephritis
- distal urethral colonization
- vesicourethral reflux
- intrarenal refulx
3 glomerulopathies that produce foot processes effacement?
- minimal change dz
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Diff between membranous and DM nephropahty?
- membranous only has gbm thickning
- dm has gbm thickening, mesangial thickening/nodular glomerulosclerosis
Hormones produced by the RCC?
What caused Diffuse cortical necrosis?
ischemia to the kidney i.e DIC, obstetric complication, atrial/ventricular thrombus
What causes Acute tubular necrosis?
- ischemia/hypoxia--patchy involvement of the tubules
- toxins--proximal tubules involved
How does Drug interstitial nephritis present?
eosinophils in urine
causes of Renal papillary necrosis?
- analgesic nephropathy
- Sicke cell
- acute pyelonephritis
Bladder Exstrophy is associated with what other congenital anomaly?
Classic pathology of kidney seen with DM?
nodular glomeruloscleorosis in the glomerulus
4 causes for oligohydramnios?P
- Posteriour urethral valve
- renal agenesis
- Multicystic renal dysplasia
- autosomal recessive
vasculitis affecting medium sized bv?
vasculitis affecting large blood vessels?
- Giant cell arteritis
ARPKD causes what?
- renal cysts
- hepatic cysts
- hepatic fibrosis