1. •Genomes are highly dynamic (3)
    • –Chromosomes break and fuse
    • –Chromosomal pieces are lost or duplicated
    • –Whole chromosome sets are duplicated
  2. Deletion:
    Removal of a segment of DNA
  3. Duplication:
    Increase in the number of copies of a chromosomal region.
  4. Inversion:
    Half-circle rotation of a chromosomal region
  5. Translocation
    Unequal exchanges between non-homologous chromosomes
  6. Translocation
    Parts of two nonhomologous chromosomes trade places
  7. Transposition:
    Movement of short DNA segments from one position in the genome to another.
  8. Aneuploidy:
    Loss or gain of one or more chromosomes producing a chromosome number that is not an exact number of the haploid number
  9. The final heavy chain antibody gene is ______ together from a set of many sub-modules.
  10. Inversion is a _____ degree flip of DNA fragment:
    -Pericentric, _____ centromer
    -Paracentric, ______ to centromer
    180; includes; adjacent
  11. Robertsonian Translocation
    Read on it
  12. Philadelphia Chromosome and Leukemia.
    • Leukemia patients have too many white blood cells.
    • C-abl is proto-oncogene and is a tyrosine kinase which regulate the cell cycle.
    • The hybrid protein cannot be regulated anymore and is always "on" which causes an abnormal growth of white blood cells and creates cancer.
  13. Transposition:
    movement of small pieces of DNA from one position to another
  14. Transposable elements (TE): all DNA segments that can move from ______ to ____ within a ____
    also called "_____"
    place; place; genome; selfish
  15. Retro(trans)posons:
    Jump around with _________.
    Need _______ to copy RNA to DNA.
    RNA intermediate; reverse transcriptase
  16. Transposons:
    Move around _____ RNA _____
    The ends are inverted ______
    without; intermediate; repeats
  17. What is and are examples of Aneuploidy?
    • Loss or gain of one or more chromosomes
    • - Trisomy 21, 18, 13
    • - Klinefelter XXY
    • - Turner X0
  18. Autotetraploidy:
    All chromosomes are from the same species
  19. Allotetraploidy:
    chromosome sets are from distinct but similar species
Card Set
genetics ch 13