1. Discuss how the singer-songwriter genre developed through the 1970s.
it arose in part from folk singers of the 1960s, Dylan especially, as well as from the increasingly ambitious music of the beatles in the last years of their career.
1. a) What musicians had success in this style throughout the decade?
James Taylor, Carole King, Van Morrison, Elton John, Joni Mitchell
1 b). How did the musical styles change?
- Sometimes singer-songwriters would be accompanied only by an acoustic piano or acoustic guitar
- Some began to emply a backup band which placed the singer-songwriter at the front of a rock band
- Some began to experiemnt with the use of jazz
2. How did heavy metal develop in the UK and US during the 1970s and 80s?
a. What are the roots of heavy metal?
- Metal has deep roots in British rock (The Yardbirds, Hendrix, Cream, The Rolling Stones)
- Heavy metal is influenced from Baroque era of classical music
- It descends from early Sabbath records
- developed out of the harder, more aggressive aspects of late 1960s and early 70s rock music
2. Discuss the important trends, musical styles, bands, and musicians of heavy metal. Also explain what many believe caused heavy metal to recede away from mainstream music.
- Bands include: Led Zepplin, Alice Cooper, Black Sabbath, Kiss
- Musical elements: driving riffs, dark themes, extended guitar solos, thundering drums with emphasis on toms.
- Musicians: Ozzy Osbourne, Vincent Furnier, Steven Tyler, Gene Simmons, David Lee Roth
2. b) How are its foundations related to the hippie aesthetic?
- heavy metal clearly continues the propagation of the hippie aesthetic and constitutes a direct continuation of late 60s and 70s musical sensibilities
- elevation of classical music models, extended forms, virtuosic solos and concept albms devoted to serious minded issues
3. Address the concept of the hippie aesthetic.
a. How does this idea relate to both musical and nonmusical elements?
- blended in classical, folk, or country elements,
- focused on virtuosic soloing
- engaged serious issues in lyrics
4. Discuss how classical music became an important factor in rock music in the 1970s.
a) Howere musicians influenced by classical music?
- Use of classical instrument such as string orcestras, flutes, oboes, etc.
- Some musicians had classical music training
- Moody Blues Album: Days of Future Past
4. b) How did they emulate it in their songs or directly utilize it?
- Procol Harum's "A Whiter Shade of Pale" uses a harmonic progression drawn from J. S. Bach's Cantata No. 140.
- The Who's "Tommy" is a rock opera.
- Emerson, Lake, and Palmer created profoundly creative albums, incorporating reworked classical pieces. (Tarkus, Trilogy)
5.Discuss how the concept album in rock music developed during the 1970s.
a ) Which musicians worked in the medium of concept albums, and what different approaches did these artists take on their albums?
- The Who: "Tommy" was a rock opera
- Moody Blues: "Days of Future Past" was a classical music concept album.
- Jethro Tull: concept albums focused on religion and spirituality, Bourgeoisie values, and life after death.
5 b) What previous work and influences directed the development of concept albums during the decade?
The Beatles: "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band"
Both Jazz and rock imported from one another starting in the early 1960s. Describe the attitudes that jazz and rock artists held toward each other.
a. upon what were these expressed feelings based?
- Jazz musicians liked the electronic instruments and rock grooves with elements of improv.
- Rock musicians like jazz elements such as: horns as an integral part of the arrangement, extended improvisations, and more complex jazz-like harmonies
6 b) Who were these early traders in rock and jazz?
- Miles Davis, John McLaughlin, Joseph Zawinul, Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter
- Bitches Brew rose to #35 on US album charts
- Weather Report's "Heavy Weather"