psych mid-term

  1. what are the four goals of psychology?
    • Describe
    • Control
    • Understand
    • Predict
  2. who is the "father of psychology"?
    Wilhelm Wundt
  3. what is structuralism?
    the analysis of of the structure of mental life broken down into elements or building blocks.
  4. who formed the idea of structuralism?
    Edward titchener
  5. define functionalism:
    the study of how the mind functions to help adapt to the environment.
  6. who theorized fuunctionalism?
    William james.
  7. define stimulus:
    any physical energy that that affects a person and evokes a response
  8. define introspection:
    "looking forward"
  9. define behaviorism:
    the study of observable behavior
  10. who believed that behavior can be controlled by reward and punishment?
  11. what is piaget's theory of cognamtive development?
    • sensorimoter- 0 to 2 years
    • preoperational- 2 to 7 years
    • concrete reversal- 7-11 years
    • deductive rerasoning- 11- up
  12. what are eriksons 8 stages?
    • trust vs mistrust- birth to 1 year
    • autonomy vs shame and doubt- 1-3 years
    • initiative vs guuilt- 3-5 years
    • industry vs inferiority- 5-11years
    • indentity vs confusion- 11-20 years
    • intimacy vs isolation-20-30 years
    • generitivity vs stagnation-30-50 years
    • integrity vs dispair- 50- up
  13. what are the stages of dying?
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining
    • Depression
    • Acceptance
  14. what are 3 newborn reflexes?
    • rooting
    • planter
    • moro
  15. what are the three different parenting styles?
    • Authoritarian- too strict.
    • overly permissive- too lenient.
    • authoritative- firm consistant guidance.
    • uninvolved.
  16. name 4 taste sensations:
    • sweet
    • sour
    • salty
    • bitter
  17. what does the visual cliff experiment measure?
    depth perception.
  18. list the steps of change?
    • precontemplative
    • contemplative
    • preperation
    • action
    • maintainance
  19. what is are the steps in the scientific method?
    • 1) make an observation
    • 2) define problem
    • 3) form hypothesis
    • 4) gather evidence
    • 5) publish results
    • 6) theory building
  20. which sleep disorder renders a person unable to sleep for extended periods of time?
  21. which sleep disorder causes excessive sleepiness and frequent daytime sleep attacks?
  22. what is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism?
  23. list 4 types of downeers:
    • Barbiturates
    • GHB
    • Tranquilizers
    • Alcohol
  24. list 5 types of uppers:
    • Amphetamines
    • Cocaine
    • MDMA
    • Caffeine
    • Nicotine
  25. what are the 5 positions in a dysfunctional family?
    • 1. user
    • 2. co-dependant
    • 3. first born- hero, fixer, perfectionist
    • 4. second born- brat or scapegoat
    • 5. third born- lost child
    • 6. fourth born- mascot, clown, entertainer
  26. what are the legal requirements of a DUI?
    • BAL of .08 or higher
    • within 25 feet of a vehicle while intoxicated
    • walking in public while intoxicated
  27. what is the legal BAL?
    • normally .08
    • in florida .02
    • florida is a no tolerance state
  28. what is classical conditioning?
    • learning an association between an action and a stimulus.
    • example, pavlovs dogs.
  29. what is operant conditioning?
    forming an association between a behavior and a consequence
  30. define extinction:
    the removal of conditioning causes a conditioned response to disapear.
  31. what isthe name of the box designed to teach operant or classical conditioning by rewarding the subject after an action has taken place either once or after a set or random number of times?
    the skinner box
  32. when is a reinforcement most effective?
    • rapidly following the correct response.
    • about a 50 second delay.
  33. what are the 7 rules of punishment?
    • 1) apply punishment during or immediatly after misbehavior
    • 2) be consistant
    • 3) use minimum punishment possible
    • 4) avoid harsh punishment
    • 5) dont rely exclusively on punishment
    • 6) use kindness and respect
    • 7) allow the punished person to retain self-respect.
  34. why are video games an effective conditioning tool?
    they supply constant and frequent feedback.
  35. what is long term memory?
    long term memory stores everything you know about the world,things that are meaningful, and saves important information.
  36. what is short term memory?
    holds information for a short period of time.
  37. what is chunking?
    • breaking up long chains into smaller parts to make it easier to memorize.
    • example: phone numbers.
  38. what is "tip-of-the-tongue"?
    information available, but not able to recall.
  39. define recall:
    the direct retraival of facts.
  40. define explicit memory:
    a past experiance that is consiously brought to mind
  41. define implicit memories:
    • memories that lie outside of awareness
    • example: keys on a keyboard.
  42. what is the curve of forgetting?
    the amount of information available after varied amounts of time; as time passes more information is lost.
  43. what is the transfer of learning?
    the transfer of learning in one context to another context that share similar characteristics
  44. what are flash bulb memories?
    a memory created in great detail during a personally significant event. These memories are perceived to have a "photographic" quality
  45. what are some keys of improving memory?
    • feedback
    • recitation
    • rehearsal
    • selection
    • organization
    • analysis
    • serial position
    • cues
    • overlearning
    • spaced practice
  46. what are Mnemonics?
    • shortening long sentences into one letter for every word until it forms one big word.
    • Example, ROY G. BIV, HOMES, Eddie Ate Dynamite, Good Bye Eddie.
Card Set
psych mid-term
for psychology mid-term chapters 1-8