Biology Lecture 20

  1. What does increasing population density imply?
    Competition among individuals of the same species.
  2. What is intraspecific competition?
    Competition between members of the same species.
  3. What are muscles growing on a rock competing for?
    space and resources
  4. What is a community?
    Assemblage of species in the same place at the same time
  5. How are species A and B effected by each interaction?
    Consumer - resource
    • 1. Negative- Negative
    • 2. Positive - Negative
    • 3. Positive - Positive
    • 4. Positive - No Effect
    • 5. Negative - No Effect
  6. What is competition and give an example.
    • Different species competeing for the same resources.
    • Predators competig for the same resource
  7. What is Interference Competition and what does it interfere with?
    • Direct commpetition between species
    • Interferes with another's ability to acquire resources
    • Physically prevents establishment
  8. What is Exploitation Competition?
    • Indirect competition between species
    • Competition for a common limiting resource
  9. What is Apparent competition and how does it occur?
    • Indirect competition between species
    • Occurs between 2 (A+B) species that are both resources for another species. (C)
    • Example: An increase in species A would lead to an increase in species C which would negatively affect species B.
  10. What is consumer Resource interaction?
    When one species is another's resource
  11. What is Mutualism interaction?
    Species exchange resources or services
  12. What is Commensalism interaction?
    When one species benefits and the other is unaffected
  13. What is Amensalism interaction?
    One species is harmed while the other is unaffected
  14. What are 3 community effects of Competition?
    • 1. Competitive Exclusion
    • 2. Niche Differentiation
    • 3. Local Extinction
  15. What is Competitive Exclusion? / Gause's Law?
    • Two species competing for the same resource cannot coexist under constant ecological conditions
    • One species will always outcompete the other eventually
  16. What is Niche differentiation?
    • Competition Drives species to evolve different patterns of resource us or different niches
    • - many species share common resources, but niche differentiation is a way for species using the same resources to coexist.
  17. If competition is fierce how can creatures adapt?
    Separate the resources out
  18. What is Local Extinction?
    When a species is introduced causing another species to go extinct
  19. What are 2 community effects of predation?
    • 1. Predator - prey population sizes are linked
    • - predation could, theoretically lead to extinction of a prey species
    • 2. Keystone predators can shape community structure
  20. What is heterogeneity? and how can it be added to a system?
    • variables
    • 1. Immigration / emigration
    • 2. Prey refuge (in space or time)
    • 3. Variation in prey defenses
    • 4. More species or predator or prey
  21. What are keystone predators?
    Increase diversity in a community by preventing superior competitors from dominating
Card Set
Biology Lecture 20
Biology Lecture 20 Competition