Org Behavior

  1. Intrinsic Rewards
    Positively valued work outcfomes that an individual receives directly as a result of task performance.
  2. Extrinsic Rewards
    Positively valued work outcomes that are given to an individual or group by some other person or source in the work setting
  3. Pay for performance
    the concpet that monetra rewards are in whole, or in part, linked to accomplishments
  4. Merit Pay
    Compensation system that directly ties an individual's salary or wage increase to measyres of performance accomplishments during a specific time period
  5. Gain Sharing
    gives workers the opportunity to earn more by receiving shares of any productivity gaisn that they help create
  6. Profit Sharing
    Reward employees based on overall organizational profit
  7. Skill-based Pay
    rewards people for acquiring and developing job relevant skills
  8. Stock Options
    provide employees with an opportunity to buy shares of stock at a futre date at a fixed price
  9. Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
    May give stock to employees, or allow stock to be purchased at a price below market value
  10. Performance Management
    fair and accurate measurement and application of rewards and the various human resourse management decisions and actions based on such measurement
  11. Performance appraisal
    formal procedure for measuring and documenting a person's work performance
  12. Methods of Performance Appraisal
    • graphic rating scales
    • ranking
    • overall comparisons
    • paired comparisons
    • forced distributions
    • 360 degree evaluation
  13. Rating Scales
    • Graphic- rates assign scores on a list of dimensions related to high performance outcomes in a given job.
    • Behavioral- raters identify observable job behariors and specifically describe superior or inferior performance.
  14. Critical incident diaries
    rater records incidents of unusual success or failure in a given performance aspect
  15. 360 degree evaluation
    includes not only the evaluations of bosses, peers, and subordinates, but also self-ratings, customer ratings and ratings by others whom the employee deals with outside the immediate work unit
  16. To be meaningful an appraisal system must be:
    • Reliable- provdie consistent results across time
    • Valid- acutally measure people on relevant job content
  17. Job design
    process through which managers plan and specify job tasks and the work arrangements that allow them to be accomplished
  18. Scientific Management
    sought to improve work efficiency by creating small, repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well
  19. Job Simplification
    standarizes work to create clearly defined and highly specialized tasks
  20. Job enlargement
    increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers
  21. Job Rotation
    increases task variety by periodically shitfting workers among jobs involving different tasks
  22. Job Enrichment
    the practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job
  23. Parts of the Job Charactersitcs Model
    • Skill variety
    • Task identity
    • Task significance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
  24. Skill variety
    variety of skills and talents needed on the job
  25. Task identity
    does job lead to completion of whole unit of work
  26. Task significance
    how important people view the task
  27. Autonomy
    have some discretion of when you much freedom within the job
  28. Feedback
    getting information on how well you are doing your job
  29. Motivating potential score
    indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people
  30. Calculating the MPS
    (Skill Variety + Task Identity + Task Significance)/3 * Autonomy *Feedback
  31. Alternative work arrangements
    • compressed work week
    • flexible working hours
    • job sharing
    • work sharing
    • telecommuting
  32. Team
    group of people with complementary skills, brought together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable
  33. Teamwork
    occurs when team members accpet their collective responsibility to best use their skills by actively working together to achieve goals
  34. Types of Teams
    • Teams that:
    • Recommend things
    • Run things
    • Make or do things
  35. Formal Teams
    officially designated to serve a specific organizational purpose
  36. Informal Groups
    emerge without being officially designates by the organization
  37. Vertical Role
    manager serves as team leader and team member
  38. Horizontal Role
    employee is a member of more than one team and serves multiple roles
  39. Social Network Analysis
    identifies the informal groups and networks of relationships that are active in an organization
  40. Cross-functional group
    members from different functions or work units
  41. Problem Solving groups
    set up to deal with a specific problem or opportunity
  42. Employee involvement team
    meet regularly to address workplace issues
  43. Virtual teams
    members work together via computers
  44. Funcitonal Silos Problem
    occurs when memebers of functional units focus only on their internal funtional members and minimize thier interactinons with members dealing with other functions
  45. Self managing teams
    empowered to make decisions to manage themselves in day-to-day work
  46. Multiple Skills
    team members are trained in performing more than one job on the team
  47. Effective Team
    one tha achieves high levels of task performance, member satisfaction, and team viability
  48. Synergy
    the creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts
  49. why teams are good for organizations
    • teams:
    • are good for people
    • can improve creativity
    • can make better decisions
    • can increase commitments to action
    • help control their members
    • help offset large organization size
  50. Common team challenges
    • social loafing
    • personailty conflicts
    • uncertain or competing goals
    • poorly defined agendas
    • perceptions that team lacks progress
    • high jacked by individuals for personal gains
  51. Social loafing
    tendency of people to work less hard in a group than they would individually
  52. Social facilitation theory
    individual behavior is influenced by the presence of others in a group or social setting
  53. Five stages of group development
    • forming
    • storming
    • norming
    • performing
    • ajourning
  54. Forming
    getting to know each other
  55. Storming
    dealing with tensions and defining group tasks
  56. Norming
    building relationships and working together
  57. Performing
    maturing in relationships and task performance
  58. Adjourning
    disbanding and celebrating accomplishments
  59. 8 factors affecting effectiveness of teams
    • nature of task
    • composition of the team
    • fundamental interpersonal orientation of the team members
    • status of team members and of team
    • size of the team
    • organizational setting and support
    • diversity of the team
    • group dynamics
  60. Team Composition
    a team must have the right skills and competencies available for task performance and problem solving
  61. FIRO-B Theory
    identifies individual differences in how people relate to one another in groups
  62. Status
    a team member's relative rank or organizational position
  63. Team Size
    can make a difference in a team's effectiveness
  64. Diversity-consensus dilemma
    Diversity of the team members expands the skills and perspectives available for problem solving but can also create difficulties due to differences
  65. Required behaviors
    those that are fomally defined and expected by the team
  66. Emergent behaviors
    those that team members display in addition to what the organization asks of them`
  67. Characteristics of high performance teams
    • have clear goals
    • believe in the goals and commit to attaining them
    • transform goals into action
    • members have the right mix of technical & social skills
  68. Team Building
    • collaborative planned activities to gather and analyze data to improve teamwork
    • formal retreat approach
    • outdoor experience approach
    • continuous imporvement approach
  69. 3 main issues of team process
    • distriduted leadership-sharing of responsibilities for contributions that move a group forward
    • task activities-various things members do that directly contribute to the performance of importnat group tasks
    • maintenance activities-support the social and interpersonal relationships among team members
  70. Task contributions
    • offering ideas
    • clarifying suggestions
    • giving information
    • seeking information
    • summarizing discussion
  71. maintenance contributions
    • encouraging others
    • reconciling differences
    • expressing standards
    • offering agreement
    • inviting participation
  72. Two types of leadership activities
    • focus on people
    • focus on task
  73. Disruptive behaviors
    • overly aggressive
    • withdrawing and refusing to cooperate
    • using group as a forum for self confession
    • getting sidetracked
    • competing for attention and recognition
    • lack of assigned accountability
  74. Role
    set of expectations associated with a job or position on a team
  75. role ambiguity
    occurs when a person is uncertain about his or her role and what is expected
  76. role overload
    occurs when too much is expected and the person feels overwhelmed with work
  77. role underload
    occurs when too little is expected and the person feels underutilized
  78. role conflict
    occurs when someoneis unable to respond to role expectations that conflict with one another
  79. role negotation
    tema building activity that hwlps to manage role conflicts and ambiguity about expectations
  80. Norms
    • represent beliefs about how members are expected to behave
    • rules or standards of conduct that act as a compass to give members a common sense of direction and reinforce a team culture
  81. Key norms that can have positive or negative implications
    • performance norms
    • ethics norms
    • organizational and personal pride norms
    • high achievement norms
    • support and helpfulness norms
    • improvement and change norms
  82. cohesiveness
    the degree to which members are attracted to a group and motivated to remain part of it
  83. inter-team dynamics
    the relationship between groups cooperating and competing with one another
  84. delphi technique
    involves generating decison making alternatives through a series of survey questionnaries
  85. decision making
    process of choosing a course of action fro dealing with a problem or opportunity
  86. Steps in the decision making process
    • define problem
    • analyze alternatives
    • make a choice
    • take action
    • evaluate results
  87. ethics
    the philosophical study of morality or standards regarding good character and conduct
  88. ethical reasoning
    examining trhe consequences of a decision on all stakeholders
  89. moral dilemma
    involves a choice between two or more ethically uncomfortabel alternatives
  90. ethical double checks
    • utility-all stakeholders satisfied?
    • rights-are all rights respected?
    • justice-is it right?
    • caring- is ti fair to all concerned?
  91. programmed decisions
    involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed thorugh standard responses
  92. nonprogrammed decisions
    involve nonroutine problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand
  93. decision making environments
    • certainty
    • uncertainty
    • risk
  94. a decision environment is certain
    when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation
  95. a decision environment is risky
    when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of actions but they are aware of the probabilities associated with their occurrence
  96. a decision environment is uncertain
    when managers have so little information on hand that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and their possible outcomes
  97. risk management
    programs instituted byt organizations that focus on anticipating risk in situations and factoring risk alternatives into the decision making process
  98. Communication
    process of sending and receiving symbols with attached meanings
  99. steps on communication
    • sender
    • encoding
    • message
    • channel
    • decoding
    • receiver
    • feedback
  100. noise
    anything that interferes with communication
  101. examples of communication channels
    • face to face meetings
    • email
    • online discussions
    • written letters
    • telephone
    • voice mail
  102. feedback
    the process theough which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message
  103. formal channels
    follow the chain of command established by an organization's hierarchy of authority
  104. informal channels
    diverge from formal channels by skipping levels in the hierarchy or cutting across vertical chains of command
  105. grapevine
    a network of friendships and acquaintances through which rumors and other unofficial information get passed from person to person
  106. channel richness
    the capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively
  107. organizational communication
    specific process through which info moves and is exchanged throughout an organization
  108. downward communication
    communication flows along the chain of command from top to bottom
  109. upward communication
    communication flows from lower to higher levels of the organization
  110. lateral communication
    communication flow across the same level of the organization
  111. effective commnication
    occurs when the intended meaning of the source and the perceived meanign of the receiver are virtually the same
  112. efficient communication
    occurs at minimum cost in terms of resources expended
  113. nonverbal communication
    takes place through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures
  114. kinesics
    study of gestures and body postures
  115. proxemics
    study of the way space is used
  116. active listening
    ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means
  117. active listening guidelines
    • be nonevaluative
    • paraphrase content
    • reflect implications
    • reflect underlying feelings
    • invite further contributions
    • use nonverbal listening responses
  118. ethnocentrism
    the tendency to believe that one's culture and its values are superior to those of others
  119. low context cultures
    very explicit in using the spoken and written word
  120. high context cultures
    use words to convey only a limited part fo the message, the rest must be inferred or interpreted from the context
  121. physical distractions
    • any aspect of the physical setting in which communication takes place
    • can interfere with communication effectiveness
  122. semantic problems
    • poor choice or use of words and mixed messages
    • KISS principle -keep it short and simple
  123. mixed messages
    persons words communicate something different than their actions or body language communicate
  124. stastus effects
    status differences create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks
  125. mum effects
    tendency to keep "mum" from a desire to be polite and a reluctance to transmit bad news
  126. workplace privacy
    • eavesdropping by employers or employee use of electronic messaging in corporate facilities
    • most organizations develop interal policies regarding employee privacy
    • likely to remain controversial
  127. communication and social context
    men and women are socialized in different ways
Card Set
Org Behavior
Exam 2