Neurofibromatosis type I is characterized by which of the following conditions?
B) Cafe au laix macules
Perioral melanotic macules- Addison's and Peutz-Jegher
Neurofibromatosis- Autosomal Dominant tumors of melanocytes and schwann cells (derived from neural crest)
- harmless or cause damage by compressing nerves/tissue
1. Type I- Lisch Nodules, neural tumors, cafe aux laix, skeletal disorders, pheochromocytosis; chromosome 17
2. Type II- characterized by ACOUSTIC SCHWANNOMAS (deafness)
Which of the following cancers typically arises in teenagers and young adults?
D) Ewings (t 11,22)
- onion peel appearance
- early metastasis
- v. responsive to radiotherapy
- SMALL BLUE cell malignant tumor
- most common in boys <15 yrs old
C) Wilm's tumor
- most common renal malignancy of early childhood (age 2-4)
- huge palpable mass
Of the primary maxillary teeth, the cervical ridge would stand outMOST prominently as a distinct entity on which surface of which molar?
Following eruption and initial occlusal contact in the oral cavity, a tooth will continue to erupt in order to compensate for occlusal wear. In response to this continuous eruption, which of the following is deposited at the apex of the root?
B) Cellular cementum
- located at the 1/2-1/3 apical portion of root
- cementum lacks vascularization
- Acellular cementum is the enamel located at the lower part of then enamel (more cervical)
Which of the following teeth is the LEAST likely tooth to have a bifurcation of the root?
Each of the following is characteristic of herpes zoster EXCEPTone. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
- posterherpetic neuralgia
Which of the following is the lobe of the cerebral hemisphere that lies in the middle cranial fossa?
frontal- anterior fossa
occipital- posterior cranial fossa
anterior and middle cranial fossa separated by lesser wing of sphenoid bone
middle and posterior cranial fossa separated by petrous part of temporal bone
MOST cases of choriocarcinoma are discovered by the appearance of a rising titer in blood or urine of which of the following?
choriocarcinoma- aggressive, malignant cancer of placenta
- early hematogenous spread to LUNGS
- v. sensitive to chemotherapy
The apex of the horizontal plane Gothic-arch tracing represents which of the following positions?
A) Centric relation
B) Rest position
C) Maximum opening
D) Lateral protrusive
Which of the following statements is correct with respect to mastication of food?
A mature ovum is expelled from which of the following?
1. graafian follicle ruptures to release mature ovum
2. corpus hemorrhagicum immediately after rupture
3. Corpus luteum
4. corpus albicans= degenerated corpus luteum
a lymphokine cytokine that kills virally infected cells by producing holes in cell membrane
- released by Cytotoxic T8 cells
Calcium dipicolinate is present in large amounts in
Each of the following statements describes a contributor to the initiation of mineralization of bone EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Before swallowing can be initiated, afferent information must be received
Glucose can be made from each of the following substancesEXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?A) Fructose
E) Acetyl CoA
The movement in the upper compartment of the temporomandibular joint is rotation and translation. The movement in the lower compartment is translation.
ROTATION= hinge movement
upper compartment= translation
lower compartment= hinge-type rotation
Juxtamedullary nephron vs. cortical nephron
- differ mostly by the length of the loop of Henle
- named based on location of the renal corpuscle (glomerulus + Bowman's capsule)
1. juxta- more rare; responsible for creating osmotic gradient in medulla
Atropine prevents the secretion of saliva resulting from stimulation of the chorda tympani because it
A) prevents release of acetylcholine by sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
B) prevents release of acetylcholine in autonomic ganglia.
C) prevents the action of acetylcholine on the secreting cells.
D) denatures the salivary gland proteins.
- competitive antagonist for the muscarinic receptor so it doesn't allow Ach to bind
If the anticodon on transfer-RNA is 5'ACG3', then which of the following is its corresponding codon on messenger-RNA?
A) 5' UAG 3
'B) 5' CGT 3'
C) 5' CGU 3'
D) 5' UGC 3'
E) 5' TGC 3'
Cigarette smoking has been etiologically linked to each of the following cancers EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
In the intercuspal position, which of the following anterior teeth has the potential of contacting both anterior and posterior antagonists?
On the crown of the primary maxillary first molar, the mesial surface normally
Which of the following factors MOST influences the lingual concavity of the maxillary anterior teeth and groove direction of the posterior teeth?
Each of the following is attributable to hepatic failure EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?A) Hypoalbuminemia
B) Mallory bodies
D) Spider telangiectasia
B) Mallory Body
- alcoholic hyaline inclusion in cytoplasm of liver cells
- most common in alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis
Which main product of protein nitrogen metabolism is found in human urine?
During the life span of a multi rooted tooth, dentin continues to form MOSTrapidly at which of the following locations?
A patient reports breaking a lower right central incisor while eating a cookie. Which of the following mandibular movements was the patient MOST likely making when this occurred?
Which of the following types of bronchogenic carcinoma is MOST commonly associated with paraneoplastic syndrome?
- disease or symptom that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but is not due to local presence of cancer cells
Small cell- ectopic production of ACTH or ADH
- can lead to Lambert-Eaton syndrome (auto-Ab's against Ca2+ channels)
The articular disc of the temporomandibular joint consists of
In a CUSP TO FOSSA contacting relationship in intercuspal position, the maxillary first premolar is MOST likely to articulate with which of the following mandibular teeth?
Because of the mesial swing of the lingual cusp
- nothing occludes in the mesial fossas of the mandibular teeth
The OLDEST enamel in a fully erupted first molar is located at the cervix of the tooth.
Which of the following represents the structure in the maxillary alveolar bone that maxillary premolar roots occasionally penetrate?
Which of the following is MOST likely to precede an impending atherosclerotic cerebral infarction?A) Myocardial infarction
B) Ruptured berry aneurysm
C) Pulmonary embolus
D) Transient ischemic attacks
E) Angina pectoris
The biologically active conformation of trimeric G-proteins requires
.D) the alpha-subunit to bind GDP.
Which of the following organs secretes insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and what stimulates this secretion?A) Kidney, increasing growth hormone in the blood
B) Liver, increasing growth hormone in the blood
C) Liver, increasing TSH in the blood
D) Anterior pituitary, increasing IGF-RH in the blood
E) Anterior pituitary, increasing GRH in the blood
IGf-1 is made in liver and stimulated by GH (from anterior pituitary)
- binds to IGF-R (tyrosine kinase)
- stimulates body growth
In which of the following structures are glycoproteins assembled for extracellular use?
- protein made in RER, but glycosylated/modified in Golgi for extracellular use
Ingestion of which of the following MOST markedly DECREASES gastric emptying?
- decrease gastric emptying bc CCK (need more time to break down the fats)
A patient bites down rapidly on an unexpected hard surface while chewing. Cessation of motor unit recruitment in jaw closing muscles is caused by stimulation of
Edema as a result of a hemodynamic disorder commonly occurs in each of the following locations EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
Inorganic crystals in enamel have their long axes parallel to the rods in which of the following?
Which of the following temporomandibular joint ligaments restricts the movement of the disc away from the condyle during function?
THe condyle on the laterotrusive side generally rotates about a
Which of the following teeth has its mesial marginal ridge located more cervically than its distal marginal ridge?
The main route of calcium excretion from a normal human adult is
The first clinical findings in prostatic cancer are often the result of metastasis to which of the following?A) Brain
E) Adrenal gland