Bacterial genetics.txt

  1. bacterial transformation
    DNA isolated broken into pieces and DONOR DNA is taken up by recipient strain
  2. bacterial conjugation
    • requires presence of F factor: F+ strains have the F factor (plasmid), F- strains do NOT
    • Hfr Strains: have the F factor present INTEGRATED into host chromosome
  3. Interrupted mating
    Allow different bacterial strains to mate for different times and then plate on agar. Hfr bac are selected against (killed) and F- will grow. The F- are examined for transfer markers…the markers are transferred as time continues and the transfer is measured in MINUTES
  4. F'
    Contains the F factor along with some of the DNA from the bacterial cell's genome
  5. Merodiploid
    • Partial diploid
    • Occurs when the F+ cell inserts into the bacterial chromosome, now becoming the Hfr cell. Then this F is excised and some of the bacterial genome is taken along with it…this new plasmid is now F'. Now this F' inserts into an F- cell and this cell is now a partial diploid
  6. Beadle & Tatum
    • discovered "One gene-one enzyme" by working with Neurospora fungus on bread. Discovered 3 different sets of this fungus that some were able to perform some different biosynthesis of arginine
    • Complementation testing helped to see which mutants were the same and which were different
  7. Bacteria characteristics
    • 1. Easy to grow
    • 2. Short generation time
    • 3. Cross easily
    • 4. Single colonies grow into colonies containing 10^7 cells
    • 5. prokaryotes
  8. Bacteria genetic markers
    • nutritional markers: normal back can make cell components on minimal media, but MUTANTS lack ability to synth some compounds, but will grow ONLY if compound is supplied
    • prototroph: back can grow on minimal media w/salts & glucose
    • auxotroph: mutant LACKS availability to make 1 or more nutrients, NEEDS growth nutrients supplied
  9. Resistant and sensitive to antibiotics
    • if GROWTH on plate w/amp for example, then this mutation is ampR
    • if NO Growth, then mutation is ampS (or WT)
  10. Growth with nutrients
    if Growth with media containing trp+, but NOT on plate w/minimal media, then mutant is trp-
  11. Amino acid structure
    • Glycine
    • H
    • +H2N-C-COO-
    • H
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Bacterial genetics.txt
bac genetics