Respiratory System

  1. Functions of Respiratory System
    gas exchange & acid-base balance
  2. 2 Anatomical zones & their functions
    • Conducting zone--> bulk movement of gas
    • Respiratory zone--> gas diffusion between conducting zone and blood
  3. Parts of conducting zone from proximal to distal & wich contain smooth muscle or cartilage in their walls
    • 1. nasal cavity
    • 2. pharynx
    • 3. larynx
    • epiglottis--> cartlidge flap
    • glottis--->vocal folds & openings
    • 4. trachea--> cartlidge rings
    • 5. bronchus--> cartlidge & smooth muscle
    • 6. bronchiole-->no cartlidge
    • 7. terminal bronchiole
  4. Define epiglottis
    cartlidge flap--> covers airway during swallowin
  5. Define glottis
    vocal folds & opening
  6. Define alveolus
    distal functional units surrounded by capillaries
  7. Process that contributes to respiration & define each
    • 1.Ventilation--> bulk gas movement in & out of conducting zone
    • 2. External respiration--> gas diffustion between alveolus & blood across the respiratory membrane
    • 3. Internal respiration--> gas diffusion between blood & cells
    • 4. Cellular respiration-->oxidation of organic compounds to produce Co2 & H2O--> purpose is ATP
  8. What are the components of ventilation?
    Inspiration & expiration
  9. Define which components of ventilation are active versus passive & under what conditions.
    • Inspiration is active due to diaphragm contraction
    • Expiration is passive due to diaphragm relax
  10. How does pulmonary volume relate to intrapulmonary pressure in both inpiration and expiration
    • Inspiration= lung volume increases & pressue decreases
    • Expiration= lung volume decreases & pressure increases (can be active if blockage or exercise)
  11. Surfactant--what type of compound is it, what is it's function & what does it prevent?
    • compound--> phospholipid
    • function--> decreases surface tension of water
    • prevents-->collapse
  12. What is tidal volume?
    air inspired or expired (normal breath)
  13. What is vital capacity?
    maximum air expired after maximum inspiration
  14. What is partial pressure?
    pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture
  15. Cite the rule that governs gas diffusion
    a gas diffuses from high to low partial pressure independently of other gases in the mixture
  16. What would be a correct pari of partial pressure that would promote diffusion of a specific gas from one location to another
    • Partial pressure (P) O2 alvelous--> P O2 blood
    • P CO2 blood--> P CO2 alvelous
  17. How is most oxygen transported in the blood?
  18. How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
  19. Relevant arterial PO2 values
    • 1. 90 mm Hg (typical)--> 97% O2 saturation
    • 2. 60 mm Hg (most important)--> 90% P O2< 60(large decreases in O2 saturation= respiratory failure
    • 3. 40 mm Hg (critical factor)--> 75% (symptoms)
  20. a.What stimulus does centeral chemoreceptors respond to?
    b. How is ventilation rate affected?
    • a. small CO2 increases
    • b. rate increases
  21. a.What stimulus does peripheral chemoreceptors respond to ?
    b. How is ventilation rate affected?
    • a.Large O2 decreases
    • b. rated increases
  22. What is the major drive in normal persons?
    hypercapnic drive
  23. What is the major drive in persons who retain CO2?
    hypoxic drive
Card Set
Respiratory System
Respiratory System