4 effects of global warming
- higher temperatures
- rising sea levels
- more intense storms
- more hurricanes
What is global warming attributed to?
increase in methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, and carbon dioxide
the progressive increase of the Earth's average temperature
the presence of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
What is the function of cellular respiration?
Energy stored in chemical bonds of food are turned into energy
transferring a phosphate to another molecule
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (as ATP)
What is cellular respiration
converts energy from food into stored ATP - fuels cells
Where does most of the cellular respiration occur?
In the mitochondria
what are the steps of cellular respiration?
- 1. Glycolysis
- 2. Citric Acid Cycle
- 3. Electron Transport Chain
Where does glycolysis occur?
What happens in glycolysis?
glucose breaks down to 3 carbons, 2 puyruvic acid molecules -- 2 ATP molecules
semifluid medium inside the mitochondrian
what does the citric acid cycle release?
Electrons from the carbon containing compounds it receives from glycolysis
electron carrier utilized by cellular respiration - nicotamide adenine dinucleotide
fats are broken down into"
fatty acids, glycerol
carbs are broken down into what?
proteins are broken down into what?
breakdown of amino acids, excreted in urine
produced by actions of NADH-byproduct of human fermentation
What foods are produced from anaerobic respiration?
yogurt, sour cream, cheese, soy sauce, bread, alcohol
Water can absorb and store a large amount of heat in its hydrogen bonds
mass of cells that has no apparent function in the body
tumors that don't affect surrounding structures and stay in one place
tumors that invade surrounding structures
when cancer cells of a malignant tumor break away and start new cancers in distant locations
collects fluids lost from capillaries
structures that filter lost fluids
3 ways cancer cells differ from normal cells
- divide when they shouldn't
- invade surrounding tissues
- move to another location in the body
8 risk factors for getting cancer
- lack of exercise
- sun exposure
- fair skin
9 types of cancer and risk factors with each
- colon and rectum
remove electrons from other molecules
why is cell division necessary?
- to heal wounds
- replace damaged cells
- help organisms grow and reproduce
instructions in DNA
stuctures that contain genes
why do chromosomes condense?
- easier to move
- less likely to break
middle of replicated chromosome
what makes up dna?
nitrogenous bases with a sugar, phosphate backbone
DNA that contains half of conserved parental DNA and half daughter DNA
What does DNA polymerase do?
assist DNA replication
what are 3 phases of cell cycle
3 phases of interphase and what happens in each?
- G1 most of cell's organelles duplicate, cells grow larger
- S DNA replicates
- G2 proteins are synthesized that will help drive mitosis to completion
What are the phases of mitosis and what happens?
how do animal cells split?
where are the checkpoints in the cell cycle?
during G1, G2, and metaphase
change in the sequence of DNA
genes that carry instructions for producing proteins that suppress cell division if conditions aren't favorable
formation of new blood vessels
a property that keeps cells from dividing when doing so would require them to pile up on each other
contact with underlying cells to stay in place
uses high energy particles to injure or destroy cells by damaging DNA
form of cell division
where does meiosis occur?
specialized cells within gonads
specialized sex cells: sperm, eggs
cells that contain 46 chromosomes
how many chromosomes do haploid and diploid cells have?
22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes
either of 2 duplicated, identical copies of a chromosome
phases of meiosis and what happens in each phase
- Prophase-nuclear envelope starts to break down, microtubules start to assemble, DNA condenses into chromosomes
- Metaphase I-chromosomes align in middle of cell
- Anaphase I-chromosomes separated by shortening of microtubules
- Telophase I - 2 daugher cells, nuclear envelopes reform
- Meiosis II-
exchange of portions of chromosomes from one to another
when members of homolagous pairs line up randomply with response to maternal or paernal origin and increase the diversity of the offspring
failure of chromosomes to separate
absence of one chromosome of a homologous pair
examples of conditions of nondisjunction of autosomes
- trisomy 21 - downs
- trisomy 13 - patau
- trisomy 18 - edwards
- XO - turner
- X- Meta
- XXY - Klienfelter
- xyy - condition