What age group seek orthodontic care?
Give a type of genetic cause for malocclusion?
Child inherits mothers small jaw and fathers large teeth
"blank" is the specialized branch of dentistry that diagnoses, prevents, and treats dental and facial irregularities.
"blank" is structures that include the teeth, jaws, and sorrounding facial bones.
What are some orthodontic treatments?
- straightens teeth that are rotated, tilted, or improperly aligned
- correct crowded or unevenly spaced teeth
- correct bite problems
- aligns upper and lower jaws
How can orthodontic treatment eliminate or reduce adversity for the patient?
- Psychosocial problems- strong influence on self esteem
- Oral malfunctions- difficulties when chewing, jaw discrepancies, malocclusion, TMJ pain
- Dental disease- malocclusion causes dental decay and periodontal disease
What is the emphasis of study for the orthodontics?
- orofacial growth and development, new techniques, biomechanics and research.
- 3 years for ortho programs
What are the most common encountered developmental disturbances?
- Congenitally missing teeth
- Malformed teeth
- Supernumerary teeth
- Interference with eruption
- Ectopic eruption
"blank" is an abnormal direction of tooth eruption.
What are environmental causes?
- Birth injuries
- -fetal molding-arm is abnormally pressed against mandible
- -Trauma-injury to jaw in actual birth(forceps)
- Injury throughout life
- -damage to permanent tooth buds
- -movement of tooth as result of premature loss of primary tooth
- -Direct injury to permanent tooth
"blank" is pressure applied to the jaw, causing a distortion.
What are habits that affect the dentition?
- Tongue thrusting
- Tongue thrust swallowing
- Thumb and finger sucking
- Mouth breathing
What term is used for abnormal occlusion?
What tooth is used to determine a person's occlusion?
maxillary first molar
If a tooth is not properly aligned with its opposing tooth, is is said to be in
If a person occludes and you cannot see the mandibular anterior teeth, what is the patients malalignment?
The maxillary and mandibular teeth when closed correctly are referred to as being
occluded or having normal occlusion
Any occlusion that is deviated from a class I normal occlusion is called? (according to Angle's classification)
"blank" consists of a normal relationship with the molars, but the anterior teeth wil be out of alignment with malpositioned or rotated teeth.
Class I Malocclusion
"blank" is in which the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes mesial to the mesiobuccal groove of the mandibular first molar.
Class II Maloclussion = distoclusion
What is another name for Class II Malocclusion?
distoclusion- mandible is in a abnormal distal relationship to the maxilla
A common name for teeth protruding over the mandibular anterior teeth?
What is another name for Class III Malocclusion?
Mesioclusion- The body of the mandible is in an abnormal mesial relationship to the maxilla.
"blank" is when the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the interdental space b/w the distal cusp of the mandibular first permanent molar and the mesial cusp of the mandibular second permanent molar.
Class III Malocclusion= Mesioclusion
Common name for the mandibular anterior teeth protruding in front of the maxillary anterior teeth?
"blank" is the most common contributor to malocclusion, condition that occurs when teeth are not properly aligned within the arch.
"blank" is excessive protrusion of the maxillary incisors.
"blank" is alack of vertical overlap of the maxillary incisors, creating an opening of the anterior teeth.
What two positions does the orthodontist evaluate for facial symmetry?
- Frontal analysis- bilateral symmetry, size proportion of midline to lateral structures, vertical proportionally
- profile analysis- to determine whether the jaws are proportionately positioned, evaluate lip protrusion and vertical facial proportions and mandibular plane angle
What type of radiograph is used to review the anatomic base for malocclusion?
How many phtographs are taken during the records appointment?
- Two standard extraoral photographs
- Three standard intraoral photographs
What gypsum material is commonly used for fabricating diagnostic casts in the orthodontic office?
What does corrective orthodontics include?
- Fixed appliances- cemented or bonded (cannot be removed by patient)
- Removable appliances- correction or maintenance
- Orthognathic surgery (problem is severe)
Radiograph used to view the eruption process of primaryand permanent teeth, as well as to evaluate the amount of space available for the eruption process.
What are the diagnostic casts used for?
diagnosis and case presentations of the orthodontic patient
What instrument is used to seat a molar band?
Is the orthodontic scaler used for removing calculus from around the fixed appliance?
no, is used to remove excess cement or bonding material, bracket placement, removalo f elastomeric rings
What is another name for 110 pliers?
When insurance coverage is in place whos responsibility is to submit periodic progress claims for reimbursement?
"blank" guides the elastic or wire ligature tie around the bracket.
"blank" is a round serrated end that helps seat a molar band for a fixed appliance.
To prepare for the placement of orthodontic bands, what procedure is completed to wedge teeth apart?
placement of separator
When bands are cemented, what can be used to prevent cement from getting into the buccal tubes or attachments?
lip balm(chapstick) or utility wax
Are brackets cemented or bonded to a tooth?
bonded to enamel of tooth
Where would most auxiliary attachments be found on braces?
molars bands or single brackets
What type of arch wire is indicated for correcting malaligned teeth?
In what two ways can you measure an arch wire without placing it in the patients mouth?
- Using study model
- used arch wire that is being replaced
Besides the use of ligature ties, what technique can be used to hold an arch wire in place?
"blank" is another term for fixed orthodontic appliances
Braces= bands, brackets, arch wires, auxiliaries that can move a tooth in six directions- mesially, distally, lingually, facially, apically, occlusally
What is the sequence for appointments for the orthodontic patient?
- 1. placement of separators
- 2. cementation of molar bands
- 3. bonding of brackets
- 4. insertion or arch wire and trying in with ligature tie or elastomeric ties
- 5. adjustment checks
- 6. retention of teeth
What are two main methods of separation used for posterior teeth?
- Steel separating springs
- Elastomeric separators
When placing steel separating springs what side is placed into the lingual embrasure?
the bent-over end of the longer end
"blank" are small device bonded to teeth to hold the arch wire in place.
What type of material is used to construct brackets?
- stainless steel
- or combination
"blank" are attachments that are located on brackets and bands to hold arch wire and elatic in place.
"blank" is a contoured metal wire that provides force when teeth are guided in movement for orthodontics.
Type of arch wire used for movement because its flexibility, used during initial stages for malaligned or crowded teeth.
Nickel titanium / NiTi
Type of arch wire that's stiffer and stronger than other types of wire and is used to apply greater force and give better stability to control teeth.
Stainless steel wire
Type of arch wire that provides a combination of strenght, flexibility and memory. used when many bands have to be placed.
Beta titanium (TMA)
Type of newer arch wire made from composite material with a top coating of optical glass fibers.
Wires used during the final stages of treatment to position the crown and the root in the correct maxillary and madibular relationship.
square or rectangular wires
"blank" are light wire used to hold or tie the arch wire in its bracket.
Type of ligature ties that have been spot-welded at the tip to form a hook for the attachment of elastics.
"blank" are accessory items made of elastic materials that help in tooth movement.
- power products
- elastic chain ties-for continuos "O's" used to close space b/w teeth
- Elastics or rubber bands- palced form one tooth to another in same arch to close space b/w teeth and correcting occlusal realtionship.
- Elastic thread- type of tubing used to close space or aid in eruption of impacted teeth
- Comfort tubing- enhance patients comfort by covering arch wire
"blank"is a new orthodontic alignment technique used today for simple alignment of teeth
Vacuum-formed clear aligner
Who's responsability is it to check the patients appliance?
What is checked for existance during checking appliances?
- broken or missing arch wires
- Loose brackets and bands
- Loosen, broken or missing ligatures and elastics
What are the results if a person does nor take care of his or her mouth properly?
- rampant decay
- periodontal disease
What additional appliance might the orthodontist use to control growth and tooth movement?
How can hard foods possibly harm braces?
Loosen bands and bend and occasionally break arch wires
How can a patient make flossing easier with braces?
Floss teeth using a floss threader
When a patient's braces come off, does this mean that treatment is over?
No, retention is necessary!
Give an example of a retention appliance.
- hawley retainer
- lingual retainer
Most commonly used removable retainer
"blank" is an appliance used for maintaining the positions of the teeth and jaws after orthodontic treatment.
"blank" is an appliance used to retain teeth in their desired position.
To ease placement of orthodontic bands, what procedure is completed to open the contact b/w teeth?
placement of a separator
An extraoral radiograph of the bones and tissues of the head is a