1. Explain the motions and the Osteokinematics and Arthrokinematics of the hip?
    • Osteokinematics and Arthrokinematics
    • Flexion / Extension
    • Spin
    • Dorsal glide for flexion
    • Ventral glide for extension

    • Abduction / Adduction
    • Roll / Glide opposite (open chain)

    • Internal rotation / External rotation
    • Roll / Glide opposite (open chain)
  2. Name the Stabilizing Tissue of the hip joint?and what they limit?
    • Capsule – attaches around the periphery of acetabulum and around the femoral neck
    • Consists of dense longitudinal and circular fibers

    • Illiofemoral ligament limits:
    • Hip extension
    • External rotation
    • Prevents pelvis from rotating posterior in relaxed standing

    • Pubofemoral ligament limits:
    • Hip extension
    • Abduction

    • Ischiofemoral ligament limits:
    • Hip extension
    • Adduction
    • Internal rotation
  3. Define coxa valgus?
    • Coxa valga: >125°
    • Femoral head is directed more superiorly into the acetabulum
  4. What are the benefits of a coxa valgus angle of inclination?
    • Benefit
    • Increased functional length of hip abductors
    • Decreases shear

    • Detriment
    • Decreased moment arm for hip abductors
    • Increased joint reaction force
    • Joint instability
    • Often associated with genu varum
  5. What is the angle when the angle of inclination is coxa varus? What cna cause this?
    Coxa vara: <125°

    • Causes – Hip displasia
    • Congenital development
    • Trauma
    • A prosthesis
    • Surgery to improve congruency
  6. Explain the pros and cons of a coxa varus angle of inclination?
    • Benefit
    • Increased moment arm for hip abductorsDecrease in joint reaction force
    • May improve stability

    • Detriment
    • Increases shear force
    • Potential for fracture of femoral neck
    • Decreased functional length of hip abductors
    • Changes stress on acetabulum
    • Often associated with genu valgum
  7. What is the normal angle for the hip joint?
    • Torsion Angle
    • Normal position: 10-15 degrees anteversion (anterior to mediolateral axis)
    • Promotes joint congruence
  8. Excessive anterversion creates what angle at the hip joint and cause what effects?
    Pathologic increase in the angle is excessive anteversion: >15°

    Limited external rotation is available; excessive internal rotation is available

    Toeing in during gait is a compensation made to regain joint congruency

    Moving back to normal foot placement can occur with other structural compensations
  9. What is the angle of excesive retroversion of the hip joint and what are the effects of this on the LE?
    • Pathologic decrease in the angle is retroversion: <10°
    • Limited internal rotation is available
    • Excessive external rotation is available
  10. What are the possible Pelvis on Femur Osteokinematics?
    • Pelvic Tilt
    • Lateral Pelvic Tilt
    • Pelvic Rotation
  11. What msucles cause anterior pelvic tilt and what effects will this have on the spine?
    • Anterior pelvic tilt
    • Increases lumbar lordosis

    Muscles: Hip flexors Trunk extensors
  12. What are the effects of posterior pelvic tilt and what muscles cause it?
    • Posterior pelvic tilt
    • Decreases lumbar lordosis

    • Muscles:
    • Trunk flexors
    • Hip extensors
  13. What are the effects of lateral pelvic tilt and what muscles can cause it?
    • Hip hiking
    • Lumbar laterally flex opposite stance side

    • Muscle
    • Quadratus lumborum of non-stance leg
    • Hip abductors of stance leg

    • Pelvic drop
    • Lumbar laterally flex toward stance side

    Trendellenburg SignWeakness of hip abductors on support leg will cause increased pelvic drop

    Muscles: Typically an eccentric contraction of hip abductors of stance leg
  14. What are the effects and causes of Pelvic Rotation?
    • Forward rotation
    • Iliac crest moves forward on non-stance leg leading to internal rotation of stance leg

    Lumbar rotates opposite pelvis

    Muscles: Internal rotators of stance leg

    • Backward rotation – relative hip external rotation on stance leg
    • Iliac crest moves backward on non-stance leg external rotation of stance leg

    Lumbar rotates opposite pelvis

    Muscles: external rotators of stance leg
  15. List all of the primary hip flexors?
    • Iliopsoas (iliacus, psoas)
    • Rectus femoris
    • Sartorius
    • Tensor fascia latae
  16. List all the primary hip extensors?
    • Gluteus maximus
    • Moment arm is greatest for hip extension at 0° of flexion


    • Adductor magnus
    • Hip extension moment arm is greatest for hamstrings and adductor magnus in hip flexion
  17. Name the primary hip adductors
    • Adductor magnus
    • Adductor longus
    • Adductor brevis
    • PectineusGracilis
  18. Name the primary hip abductors?
    • Gluteus medius
    • Greatest role occurs in closed-chain activities

    Hip flexion greater than 20° resulted in diminished EMG output for hip abduction

    Gluteus minimusTensor fascia latae
  19. Name the primary external rotators?
    • Obturator internus
    • Obturator externus
    • Inferior gemellus
    • Superior gemellus
    • Obturator internus and gemellis have a reduced moment arm as the hip flexes

    • Piriformis
    • Gluteus maximus
    • Quadratus femoris
    • Isn’t influenced by sagittal plane position of hip
  20. Name all the secondary hip flexors?
    • Pectineus
    • Gracilis
    • Adductor longus
    • Adductor brevis
    • Gluteus minimus
  21. Name the Secondary hip extensors?
    Gluteus medius – posterior fibers
  22. Name all the secondary frontal plane movers?
    • Hip adductors
    • Quadratus femoris
    • Biceps femoris – long head
    • Gluteus maximus

    • Hip abductors
    • Piriformis
    • Sartorius
    • Gluteus maximus
  23. Name all the secondary hip external rotators?
    • Sartorius
    • Biceps femoris – long head
    • Gluteus medius – posterior fibers
    • Gluteus minimus – posterior fibers
  24. Secondary internal hip rotators?
    • Tensor fascia latae
    • Adductor longus
    • Adductor brevis
    • Pectineus

    • Gluteus medius – anterior fibers
    • Gluteus minimus – anterior fibers
    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus
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