Comparative Test 3 (Set 5)

  1. Tetrapods have seen very little change in their ___________________ in the process of terrestrialization, they have all retained ________eye muscles
    • Extrinsic ocular muscles
    • Six
  2. There is only one real change in the extrinsic ocular muscles in tetrapods. This change is in the ________ which moves the lower eyelids of birds and mammals.
    Rectus complex
  3. ___________ have become much more differentiated associated with the ____________ and the development of a muscular tongue.
    • Hypobranchial muscles
    • Hyoid apparatus
  4. ___________ is involved in feeding and swallowing movements.
    Hypobranchial muscles
  5. __________ and __________ are very important in mediating dorsoventral bending of the spine.
    • Epibranchial muscles
    • Epaxial muscles
  6. What muscles control movements of the head?
    • Epibranchial muscles
    • Epaxial muscles
  7. In which muscles have segmentation lost or reduced in all tetrapods except salamanders?
    • Epibranchial Muscles
    • Epaxial Muscles
  8. What are the three major groups of hypaxial muscles?
    • Subvertebral group
    • Rectus abdominus
    • Lateral group
  9. What is the location and function of the subvertebral group of the hypaxial muscles?
    • They lie just below the vertebral column.
    • They interact with the epaxials.
  10. What is the location and function of the rectus abdominus of the hypaxial muscles?
    • They are located longitudinally on either side of the midventral line.
    • These support the abdomen.
  11. What is the location and function of the lateral group of the hypaxial muscles?
    • These lie along the flank.
    • They strengthen the abdominal wall.
  12. ________ muscles become large and numerous as appendages and girdles assume a major role in support and locomotion.
    Appendicular Muscles
  13. As limbs moved under the body the ___________ became less important for support.
    Ventral appendicular musculature.
  14. Describe the location Tensor tympani of the branchiomeric muscles.
    It follows part of the original mandibular arch into the middle ear, attached to the malleus (ear bone) in mammals.
  15. The ________, ________, and _________ are closely related to the evolution of the temporal fenestrae.
    • Masseter
    • Pterygoids
    • Temporalis
  16. The hyoid muscles of the banchiomeric muscles have divided into what three components?
    • Part contribute to the digastric.
    • Part contribute to the middle ear (Stapedius).
    • Rest form superficial facial muscles.
Card Set
Comparative Test 3 (Set 5)
Comparative anatomy lecture test 3.