1. what are the three stages in the process of predation
    Detection, attack and consumption
  2. Name and explain the stratagies for predator avoidance
    Avoid detection, Avoid capture and being in a group
  3. Explain crypsis and what strategy of predator
    avoidance does it exhibit. and come up wiht 2 examples
    • it is when something can camoflague itself. it is part
    • of avoiding detection. one example is the pepper moth that blends with any
    • background. and the cephalopods that changes their color to match their
    • background
  4. what are some ways prey avoid detection.
    camouflage, deception and false mimc heads
  5. what are some examples of deception
    walking stick insects, preying mantis mimics flowers
  6. what are some examples of the false head mimics
    • desert centipede that is at one end, butterfly has
    • false head on its back with moving antennae
  7. what is the term for when lizards loose their tails
    caudal autonomy
  8. explain the way a bombardier beetle avoid predators
    it sprays benzoquinone with precision
  9. how did the spray technique of the bombardier beetle evolve
    natural selection
  10. What is the warning coloration to show toxicity.
  11. do animals learn to avoid high contrast or low contrast prey? Explain the study
    toxic bugs painted to be conspicuous or cryptic and the manatids were
  12. how can mimics benefir if predators die from coral snake?
    it mimics less poisonous relative from south america
  13. explain selfish herd
    when the prey uses others as shields while they tryy to move to center of the group
  14. how does the average per capita risk increase
    when animals spread them selves out.
  15. explain the confusion effect.
    when predators have difficulty choosing a target our of a tightly packed group
  16. explain group vigilence.
    when they stand watch for predators. for exable zebras that stand head to tail
  17. explain the vervet alarm calls
    they have three different kinds of alarm calls depending on the predator.
  18. what is some strong evidence that mobbing may be an adaptation?
    that unrelated species have similar risk and all mob
  19. The different gull species that all mob is an example of...
    convergent evolution
  20. what is the difference between the convergent and divergent evolution?
    convergent:: distant species independently evolve similar adapation. Divergent: Closely related species evolve differnt adaptation
  21. with the one origin hypothesis how many gains and how many losess occured.
    1 gain 3 losses and 4 evolutionry events
  22. when you selected the path with fewest evolutionary events is...
  23. how many times has flight arose
    3 times
  24. which mode of breeding is ancestral, plural or singular cooperative breeding?
  25. What is the term for an advanced form of sociality involving reductive division of labor and cooperative brood care?
  26. name 4 phylogentic trends that might influence behavior
    body size, complexity, brain to body size ration, cephalization (having a head)
  27. can we build phylogenies based on behavior? what example of this
    yes. the bowerbirds that build a display in front of nest with certain colors to attract a mate. related species build similar bowers
  28. what are the three criteria of local adapatation
    1. geographic variation in a trait, 2. variaation at least partly genetic based, 3. genetic variation int he trait consistent with geographic variation in some enviornmental factor affecting fitness
  29. break down how the three critea of local adapation were met in the case of the funnel spiders
    • 1. the two speices differed in amt of time spent getting food
    • 2. when reared in the same garden offrpring of ea. showed differences
    • 3. the fact that birds may hover over or that there may be a scarcity of food may cause the difference in time spent for the spider getting food.
  30. explain and give example of reciprical coevolution
    local adaptation by snake if followed by local counter adaption in newt then more local adaptation in snake... etc
  31. can we say that killer whales have local adaptation?
    no because critea two may kinda be met but three is not met
  32. can we say chimps have local adaptation in behavior?
    no bc critear 2 and 3 hasnt been met
  33. explain Michael Nachman's pocket mouse experiment and how it relates to behavior as an agent of selection
    there is an agent of selection whish is raptors that can eat the mice. so it is a driving force behind why the mice have different colors based on the different regions.
  34. when does geographical variation not reflect local adaptation?
    When it is due to genetic drift, founder effect, and when there are multiple solution to the same problem.
  35. examples of Less ideal traits in nature
    imperfect mimicry, imperfect lens camera eye, stomach brooding
  36. what is the panda principle?
    the what evolves isnt always the best solution to the problem but it works. Natural selection takes path of least resistance
  37. name of the type of organism that lays unfertalized female eggs
    parthenogenetic females
  38. Explain the example of the whiptail lizard and how it relates to less ideal traits in nature. and why hasnt natural selection gotten rid of it?
    They pseudocopulate which triggers hormonal changes which then triggers ovulation. this is not gotten rid of bc there is an adaptive alley where in order for them to reach max fitness the intermediates would have a lower fitness than previously and natrual selection doesnt work that way
  39. what are the 7 steps of builing opitmalty models
    1. state goal of optimization 2. state conditions and constraints of model 3. state terms of model 4. run model and generate prediction 5. test prediction 6. evalute conditioin 7. revise model if necessary.
  40. when looking to optimize patch time what are the conditions of the model.
    currency of fitness, description of resource enviornment, foraging constraints
  41. what does the graph of gain funtion look like? what is the margina rate of e on graph? where is travel time on the graph? when drawing a line to determing the avrage rate of E intatke (R) where is it optimal?
    Energy gain v time in patch. it starts at zero in an upside down parabola type motion. the slope of the line tangent and any given value of T in patch. behind origin. Starting behind and continuing tanget to curve
  42. when looking at copulation duration in dung flie explain there "patch" time.
    when there is a higher ratio of males to female ther spend more time copulating than when there is alower ratio
  43. what is the marginal value rule
    a predator should stay in patch til its margina rate of E gain drops to average rate of E gain in entire habitat
  44. what happens if you add competitors to an entire habitat of patches?
    with high competitors you increase avg uptake of E the curve will have same shape but be lower which makes patch time increase
  45. What is the equation for specialist rate of E intake. generalist?
    lamda1E1/(1+lamda1h1). (Lamda1E1+lamda2E2)/(1+lamda1h1+lambda2h2)
  46. Show that specialist is great than generalist and come up with an equation. This equation can be dervived
  47. how does the moose maximize E uptake?
    they do it with the constraints of Na and rumen volume
  48. Darwin beleive that natrual selection was done on what level?
    The level of the individual and the group
  49. What did darwin beleive about groups
    he beleive that bravery was selected again within a group but for between groups
  50. what are the 2 main objections to group selection
    group selection is weak due to low extinction rates of groups and high levels of migration between groups and traits that are favored by the group may be exploited by cheaters
  51. what are the two mechanisms of sexual selection
    mate competition and mate choice
  52. what are the predictions for why the difference in gamete size
    females invest more intor offspring care and males, male fitness limited by number of mates
  53. what is batemans principle
    male fitness improves with number of mates females does not
  54. explain how changing the roles may change the investment made during fertilization
    when females compete for males and males take care of offspring they tend to donate more nutrition to the egg
Card Set
animal behavior