Child Psych Exam #3

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  1. What is a System?
    A set of interactive units with relationships among them.
  2. What is Wholeness?
    The necessity to look every part as it relates to the whole, in order to understand a unit.
  3. What is Organization?
    The way a sytem is structured by its relationships.
  4. What is The Rules Hypothesis?
    Idea developed by Don Jackson stating that there are redundant behavior patterns; family members only use a very limited range of behaviors that are available to them.
  5. What are covert rules?
    Rules in a family that are unspoken.
  6. What are overt rules?
    Rules in a family that are made verbally known.
  7. What is enmeshment?
    When two units become so close that boundaries blur and others are excluded.
  8. What is a Triangle?
    When there is so much tension within a dyad that one person forms a relationship with someone/something else to diffuse the tension.
  9. What are Interpersonal boundaries and what is their purpose?
    Invisible limits that surround the individuals in a subsystem. They serve to protect the separateness and autonomy of the subsystems.
  10. What is an Open System?
    A system with permeable boundaries, that permits interaction between components and with outsiders.
  11. What are characteristics of an Open System?
    • Democratic
    • Honest
    • Flexibility
    • Negotiation
    • Ability to change
    • Rights
    • Loyalty
    • Adaptability
  12. What is a Closed System?
    System with impermeable boundaries, insufficient info, hierarchy power structure, and no negotiating.
  13. What are characteristics of a Closed System?
    • Individuals give up their needs for the benefit of the group
    • Privacy may border on suspiciousness
    • Suspicious in general
    • Rigid rules and schedules that don't change
    • Stability through tradition
  14. What are characteristics of the oldest sibling?
    Sibling that is: responsible, driven, domineering, protective, planner, resentful, bossy, adult-oriented, conscientious, excel academically, makes more decisions. May feel fearful, anxious, and guilty when it comes to making mistakes.
  15. What are characteristics of a Middle Child?
    Functions independently, quieter, and resentful. "I feel left out."
  16. What are characteristics of the Youngest Child?
    More attended to, more freedom because of less parental demands, not required to make as many decisions as Oldest, gets away with a lot, goes with the flow, not as much structure as the oldest.
  17. What are some characteristics of and Only Child?
    Same high parental demands as a first born, don't have to adapt to a displacement caused by a younger sibling, tend to be high-achievers, close relationship with parents, feel a lot of pressure, show less anxiety than a first born, more maturity, leadership abilities.
  18. What is the Women's Developmental Theory?
    • Theory with emphasis on empathy
    • Self develops in the concept of relationships
    • It is as important to understand the other as it is important to feel understood
  19. What is a connection in a family?
    An interaction between two people in a family that is mutually empathetic and empowering.
  20. What is Empathy?
    Acknowledgment of anothers feelings and thinking, resulting in a feeling of being understood.
  21. What is a disconnection in a family?
    An encounter or interaction between two people in a family that works against mutual empathy.
  22. What are 3 patterns that perpetuate chronic disconnections amongst family members?
    • 1. Secrecy
    • 2. Inaccessibility of parents
    • 3. Parentification of children
  23. Who is the Marriage Researcher who studied married couples in order to distinguish happy relationships from unhappy?
    John Gottman, PhD
  24. What is the divorce rate of first marriages?
  25. What is the divorce rate of second marriages?
  26. What are the "4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse?"
    • 1. Criticism
    • 2. Contempt
    • 3. Defensiveness
    • 4. Stonewalling
  27. What is Criticism?
    Attacking someone's personality or character rather than a specific behavior. Includes blaming.
  28. What is Complaining?
    Specific statements of displeasure, focused on a single behavior. Actually a healthy behavior because suppression of these feelings will result in resentment.
  29. What is Defensiveness?
    • Common response to contempt. Escalates conflict.
    • Denying responsibility
    • Cross-complaining
    • Yes-butting
  30. What is Stonewalling?
    • Happens while a couple is talking. Withdrawing to "not make things worse" while what really is being conveyed is disapproval and distance.
    • *More commonly men
  31. What is the Mathematical Formula for a good relationship?
    • 5/1
    • There should be 5 positive interactions for every 1 negative interaction.
  32. What is Morphogenesis?
    Adapting to changes both within the system and outside it.
  33. What is Coparenting?
    Parenting in which spouses work together as a team, coordinating their child-rearing practices with each other.
  34. What is the Ecological Theory?
    A theory of development that stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationships between organisms and various environmental systems but also the relations among such systems themselves.
  35. What are the Parenting Styles?
    • 1. Authoritative
    • 2. Authoritarian
    • 3. Permissive
    • 4. Uninvolved
  36. Characteristics of Authoritative Parenting?
    Parenting that is warm, responsive, and involved yet unintrusive and in which parents set reasonable limits and expect appropriately mature behavior from their children.
  37. Characteristics of Authoritarian Parenting?
    Parenting that is harsh, unresponsive, and rigid and in which parents tend to use power-assertive methods of control.
  38. Characteristics of Permissive Parenting?
    Parenting that is lax and in which parents exercise inconsistent with discipline and encourage children to express their impulses freely.
  39. Characteristics of Uninvolved Parenting?
    Parenting that is indiferrent and neglectful and in which parents focus on their own needs rather than their children's needs.
  40. What is Empathy?
    The capacity to experience the same emotion that someone else is experiencing.
  41. What is the Women's Developmental Theory?
    • Emphasize the importance of empathy (feeling acknowledged, valued, appreciated, and understood).
    • Self develops in the concept of relationships.
    • Important to understand the other as it is to be understood.
  42. What are 3 patterns that perpetuate chronic disconnection amongst family members?
    • 1. Secrecy
    • 2. Inaccessibility of parents
    • 3. Parentification of children
  43. What are some reasons why parents may be inaccessible?
    • 1. They are too preoccupied (self-absorbed)
    • 2. They are depleted (mentally/physically)
    • 3. They are alcoholics
    • 4. They are depressed
  44. Direct Effects of marital conflict?
    When children are actual witnesses to arguments and fights.
  45. Indirect Effects of marital conflict?
    When marriage difficulties cause parents to change their child-rearing practices in unfamiliar ways.
  46. What are 2 factors commonly associated with abuse?
    • 1. A distressed, often sexually unsatisfying marriage
    • 2. The abuse of one or both marital partners by his or her own parents
  47. How does marital conflict affect children?
    Marital conflict, which can affect children (especially boys) either directly or indirectly, is associated with negative feelings and behaviors directed toward the children and with disruptions in children's social and cognitive competence, particularly when conflicts are unresolved.
  48. What is The Family Systems Theory?
    States that family processes involve mutual influences among family members and adaptation to changes in family members and their relationships as well as to circumstances external to the family. In addition, it is governed by the principles of interdependence and homeostasis and by the types of boundaries it establishes.
  49. How parents socialize children?
    Parents typically begin to systematically socialize their child during the second year by saying "no" to some behaviors and by praising other behaviors. They also teach social rules directly, serve as models with thome the child may identify or imitate, and choose the environment and social loife that their child will experience.
  50. According to Kempe and Helter and the Psychodynamic Model, what traits are common among abusive parents?
    • Lack the ability to trust
    • Low frustration tolerance
    • Immature
    • Involved with alcohol/drug use
    • Often were victims of abuse from their own parents
  51. What is the Psychodynamic Model of child abuse?
    Theory created by Kempe and Helter; they blame a lack of bonding that occurs between the parent and child.
  52. What is the Interactional Theory of child abuse?
    • Theory created by Martin and Zimrin
    • Abuse involves an adult with certain characteristics and role of the child as well.
    • Parent may see the child as abnormal or different in some
    • way.
    • Some children are more likely to be abused than their siblings because of their parents' perception of them (projection).
  53. What is an Identified Patient?
    A sibling who gets singled out and abused.
  54. What is the Encounter Theory of child abuse?
    • Theory created by Zimrin
    • States that a parent with certain traits and a child with certain traits interact in such a way that abuse may be the result
    • Ex: Controlling parent and child with ADHD, or and anxious parent and a collicky baby
  55. What are Chance Events?
    Events that hamper a parent's ability to attach to a child. (Ex: hospitalization)
Card Set
Child Psych Exam #3
Child Psychology
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