1. Energy Balance (Pos, Neg)

    What are the amts of energy in carbs, fat, proteins, alcohol?
    Pos = intake ^, out v (weight gain)

    Neg = intake v, out ^ (weight loss)

    4, 9, 4, 7
  2. Energy intake.

    *Calories based on "calorimeter"

    Energy released by burning food causes change in what temperature?
    Burning food changes "water" temperature.
  3. Energy Expenditure.

    What is BMR and RMR, what do they mean?

    What are the main components of energy expenditure?
    • BMR: minimum amt of energy in a fasting state.
    • (basal metabolic rate)

    RMR: similar to BMR but not fasting or at complete rest; usually slightly higher than BMR.

    Main components: BMR, phys. activity, thermic effect of food, adaptive thermogenesis.
  4. What accounts for the majority of energy expenditure?

    Name factors affecting BMR.
    BMR. (pump blood, respiration, basic cellular functions, not all tissues are equal)

    • factors:
    • lean body mass,
    • body surface area,
    • gender,
    • ambient temp.
    • stage of life/age
  5. Physical Activity & thermic effect of food.

    What is the % of phys. act?

    Thermic effect of food. What is it and its %?

    When would thermic effect of food occur?
    • phys act: 25-40%
    • (influenced by lean body mass, fitness level & type of activity)

    • Thermic: energy used to digest, absorb, transport and metabolize food/nutrients.
    • *highest for proteins due to energy needed to make urea.
    • *very little energy needed to digest carbs or fat.

    Effect occurs after eating.
  6. Measuring Energy Expenditure (EE).

    What is Direct Calorimetry & Indirect Calorimetry?
    Direct: measures body heat.

    • Indirect: Collects O2 consumed and expired CO2.
    • *Tells us how much enery consumed & what substrate you are burning (carbs, lipids)
  7. Eating behavior recognition.

    What is hunger, appetite, satiety and satiation?
    • Hunger: drive to find and eat food.
    • (internal)

    • appetitie: drive to eat.
    • (external)

    Satiety: start a meal

    Satiation: stop a meal
  8. Internal regulation of eating.

    Which brain part is the "master regulator of eating"?

    What hormone produced in the stomach stimulates food intake?

    What acts to "decrease" food intake?
    Master regulator: Hypothalamus.

    • Ghrelin, is the hormone stimulated for food intake.
    • (released upon empty stomach)

    Leptin, a hormone in adipose tissue acts to "decrease" food intake!
  9. What is the BMI used for?

    State the BMI for a healthy, overweight, obese person.
    BMI used to estimate body fat (non-invasive and easy)

    Healthy: 19-25

    Overweight: 25-30

    Obese: 30+
  10. Body fat content in men & women.

    What is the body fat content in women, in men?
    Women: 20-35%

    Men: 8-24%
  11. What are 4 ways to measure body fat content? (4)

    Which is the most accurate & expensive?
    Underwater weighing

    Air displacement

    Skinfold thickness

    Bioelectrical impedence

    Dual energy X-ray absorptionometry
  12. Assessing body fat distribution.

    What is visceral fat?

    Name the upper and lower body terms (2)

    Which SHAPE is more at risk?

    *LOCATION of fat is VERY important.
    Visceral fat: fat surrounding organs and underneath subcutaneous skin.

    Upper: android

    Lower: gynecoid

    *APPLE shape is more at-risk.
  13. What percentage of genes effects your body weight & composition?
  14. Treatment of overweight & obesity.

    Name 3 components to weight loss
    1) Control of energy intake

    ***2) Physical intake (especially important)

    3) Control of behavior problems
  15. What is the best tip for controlling behavior with food?
    *Self-monitering; Keep a food log.
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