What is the Seven parts Anatomy of the Nervous System?
2. Cerebrospinal Fluid
3. Cranial Nerves
5. Special Sense Organs
6. Spinal Cord
7. Spinal Nerves
1. _____ and ____ ____ represents white matter of the brain.
2. _____ represents Gray matter of the brain.
3. The functions of the Nervous System in _____ _____, Interpretive Functions, _____ _____ and Higher Mental functioning and emotional responsivness
4. Their are five senses in the body. Four special senses of the body are _____, ______ or sense of smell, ____ and _____.
5. The other, the General Sense is _____ which is all over the body.
1. Cerebrum and Cerebral Lobes
3. Sensory Input / Moter Output
4. Taste / Olfaction / Vision / Hearing
Neurotransmitters of the body
1. _______ is the most common neurotransmitter, is vital for stimulating muscle contraction and is found in junctions between motor nerves and muscles (neuromuscular juntion) Ach can be excitory or inhibitory and also involved in memory
2. _______ chemical family containing norepinephrine, epinephrin, and dopamine that has direct effect on the sympathetic nervous system include excitation, metabolic action, and endocrine action
A. ______ located in CNS & Sympathetic division of ANS. Acts as a hormone when secreted by cells of the adrenal medulla (excitatory or inhibitory)
B. ______ similar to epinephrine, both a hormone & neurotrasmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla / C. ______ found in brain & ANS, mostly inhibitory & is involved in emotions, moods, and regulatory motor control. 3. _______ naturally occurring derivative of tryptophan (amino acid) several regions of CNS. Mostly inhibitory, important in sensory preception, mood regulation, and normal sleep
4. _______ found in brain, stimulates inflammatory responses when not acting as a neurotransmitter. Mostly excitatory, involved in emotion and regulations of body temper & water balance.
5. _______ and ______ located in several regions of CNS, retina, and intestinal tract. Mostly inhibitory and act similarly to opiates to block pain. Both are located here.
1. Acetylcholine (ACH)
5. Enkephalins and Endorphins
When a stimulus is constant, over time a decrease in sensitivity to a prolonged stimulus may occur. Tends to be rapid regarding pressue, touch and smell, occurs slowly with pain and body position.
What is Adaptation?
3 Meninges & 3 Spaces of the skull
1. ____ ____ : Innermost layer, is delicate, transparent and vascular and is attached to the surface of the CNS
A. _________ space: lies between innermost layer and middle layer filled with cerebrospinal fluid and arrangment of collagen & elastic fibers that resembles spider's web. The extension extend into the next meninge
2. ________ : Middle layer, forms a loose covering around the CNS.
B. _________ space: filled with circulating serous fluid, lies between the middle layer and outer layer.
3. ____ ____ : Outermost layer, thick & dense lies against the bone and contains a double layer of connective tissue
C. _______ space: lies between the outermost layer and the vertebral canal. Safest place for injections such as saddle blocks, contains adipose tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels
1. Pia Mater
A. Subarachnoid Space
B. Subdural Space
3. Dura Mater
C. Epidural Space
Connective tissue coverings deep in the skull and spine surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In between each layer is a fluid-filled space.
What are Meninges?
Five Sight Conditions
1. ________: eyeball is not sperical, thus images and light rays striking the retina are not in focus
2. ________: Normal vision
3. ________: Farsightedness
4. ________: Nearsightedness
5. ________: Farsightedness that develops with old age
1. Brain waves are _______ electric impulses produced by cerebral cortex and are recorded. Can be recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG) and measured in Hertz (Hz)
2. _____ waves (13 to 30 Hz) awake waves
3. _____ waves (8 to 12 Hz) relaxed waves
4. _____ waves (4 to 8 Hz) dreamlike awareness (out of body)
5. _____ waves (0.5 to 4 Hz) deep sleep waves
The Lobes of the Brain
1. ______ Lobe: regulates motor output, cognition, and speech production (Broca's area, typically left hemisphere only)
2. ______ Lobe: governs somatosensory input (namely the skin and muscles) and taste. The postcentral gryus are located here.
3. ______ Lobe: house auditory, olfactory area and Wernicke's area (an area critical to language comprehensioin that is typically in the left hemisphere only)
4. ______ Lobe: Contains center for visual input
5. ______ Lobe: hidden by parts of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe is this structure which is considered the fifth lobe of brain, also call Island of Reil
Within each hemisphere of the Cerebrum, these structures, made up of white matter, are named for the bone beneath which each hemisphere lies.
What are Lobes?
Selective semipermable wall of tissue that prevents or slows down the passage of some chemical compounds and disease-causing organisms from traveling from the blood in the CNS. If blood comes in contact with neurons, they die. Has a thick basement membrane and astrocytes
What is Blood Brain Barrier?
Located in the nose, tongue, within the walls of certain arteries and in the brain, the receptors are activated by chemical stimuli and detect smells, taste, and changes in blood chemistry. Are sensitive to changes in PH and carbon dioxide concentration
What are Chemoreceptors?
Neuroglia cell used for structural support of central nervous system's neuron's. This is part of the blood-brain barrier. Considered one of the supporting cells of the Central Nervous System.
What are Astrocytes?
One of the largest organs in the body, contains an estimated 100 billion neurons, where sensory information is fused into character and behavior.
What is the Brain?
Occupies a central or medial position in the body, concerned with interpreting incoming sensory information and issuing instructions in the form of motor responses. Major components are brain, meninges, cerebospinal fluid and spinal cord.
What is the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
1. _____ are the basic impulse-conducting cells, the simplest structual unit of the Nervous System. It follows the two properties; _______ : the ability to transmit an impulse to other neurons, muscles and glands and ______ : the ability to respond to stimulus and convert to a nerve impulse.
2. Neurons have three basic parts : ____ body , ______, and a single ____.
3. _____ are typically short, narrow and highly branched extensions of nerve cell., recieve and transmit stimuli toward the body cell.
4. _____ _____ or cyton, contains nucleus, rhibosomes and other organelles and rough endoplasmic reticulum called Nissl Bodies.
5. _____ carry nerve impulses away from the neuron toward another neuron, a muscle cell, or a gland. May possess infrequent branches, called collaterals. Contains Synaptic bulbs and Vesicles, Telodendria, Nodes of Ranvier and Myelin Sheath
1. Neurons / Excitability / Conductibility
2. Cell Body / Dendrites / Axons
4. Cell Body
Five Structures of the Axon for a Neuron
1. ____ ____ each axon terminal ends with a small bud, also known as synaptic knob, which contains synaptic vesicles
2. ________ located at distal end of each axon, the clusters are short, fine filaments
3. ____ ____ located within synaptic bulbs of the axon, the saclike structures produce and store neurotransmitters, chemicals that facilitate, arouse, or inhibit transmission of nerve impulses
4. ____ ____ white in color, also known as white matter. Not only electrically insulates the neuron but also increases nerve impule speed. Formed by Schwann cells.
5. ____ ____ Gap along myelinated axons, these structures are located at intervals between each Schwann Cell. Impulse can jump from one node to another, resulting in increased rate of conduction
1. Synaptic Bulbs
3. Synaptic Vesicles
4. Myelin Sheath
5. Nodes of Ranvier
Four supporting cells (Neuroglia) of Central Nervous System (1-4) and Two supporting cells of Peripheral Nervous System (5-6)
1. _____ used for structural support of delicate CNS neurons and are part of the blood-brain barrier
2. _____ lines cranial ventricles and central canal of spinal and assist in circulating cerebrospinal fluid, also know ependymal cells
3. _____ protects the CNS by destroying pathogens and removing dead neural tissue
4. _____ forms a myelin sheath that surrounds some axons in the CNS
5. _____ used for structural support of the PNS, delicate neurons and are only found surrounding neuron cell bodies with ganglia.
6. _____ also known as neurolemmocytes, form a layer of thin myelin sheath called Neurilemma surrounds only axons in the PNS.
5. Satellite Cells
6. Schwann Cells
Also known as glia, is connective tissue that supports, nourishes, protects, insulates, and organizes neurons. Because it is not neural tissue, is unable to transmit impulses. Cells are able to replicate through cell devision, most brain tumors are made up of glial cells.
What are Neuroglia?
Divisions of the Nervous System
1. ______ nervous system (CNS) occupies central or medial position of body. Substructures are Brain and Spinal Cord
2. ______ nervous system (PNS) composed of cranial nerves which orginate from the _____ and spinal nerves exit the ____ ____. has 43 pairs of nerves (12 cranial, 31 spinal)
3. ______ nervous system (SNS) has sensory neurons that carry information from bones, muscles, joints and the skin as well as from sensory receptors from the special senses. Motor neurons in SNS carry impulses to CNS, considered Voluntary System
4. ______ nervous system (ANS) is an involuntary system supplying impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands. Also has a devison in itself with complementary responses; ______ division and _____ division.
5. ______ nervous system, also known as rest-and-digest divison of ANS that conserve & restore body energy, such as digestion. Referred to the housekeeping system as it works under calm conditions and maintain homeostasis.
6. ______ nervous system, this division overrides the other division during physical exertion or emotional stress, names fight-or-flight division. Requires body energy, nerves cause adrenal gland to secrete epinephrine.
1. Central Nervous System
2. Peripheral Nervous System
3. Somatic Nervous System
4. Autonomic Nervous System
5. Parasympathetic Nervous System
6. Sympathetic Nervous System
1. ________ is the part of the brain that houses the thalamus and the hypothalumus. Also located here are structures such as the pituitary and the pineal glands.
2. ________ nearly makes up 80% of the structure, relays sensory information (except olfaction) to appropriate parts of the cerebrum
3. ________ regulates the ANS and endocrine system by governing the pituitary gland. also controls behavoiral patters and the person's 24-hour cycle, called _______ rhythm. Controls hunger, thirst, anger, agression, hormones and consciousness
4. ________ Gland connected to hypothalumus by a slender stalk (infundibulum) Sits on the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone.
5. ________ Gland located below the corpus callosum. Although function is not clear, produces and secretes the hormone melatonin.
4. Pituitary Gland
5. Pineal Gland
1. ______ is continuous with the spinal cord and has three main divisions.
2. ______ division conducts nerve impulses from the cerebrum to the pons and sensory impulses from the spinal cord to the thalamus. Also has centers to control movements of the eyes, head & neck.
3. ______ division relays nerve impulses from one side of the cerebellum to another. Also has areas that help control breathing. Four pairs of cranial nerves branch off from them.
4. ___ ___ division is most inferior portion, conducts sensory and motor impulses between other parts of the brain & spinal cord. Contains much of the crossing-over fibers that cause the left hemisphere association with the right hemisphere
3. Medulla Oblongata
Shaped like a boxing glove, this is the largest part of the brain. Where sensations (smell, taste, body movements) are consciously perceived and where all decisions are made. Language centers, sensory input, skeletal muscle motor movement are also located here.
Contains Cerebral cortex (think layer of gray matter), two large (left and right) cerebral hemispheres connected by the Corpus Callosum
What is the Cerebrum?
A cauliflower-shaped structure located posterior and inferior to the cerebrum in the brain. Second largest part of the brain and consists of two Cerebellar hemispheres.
Also contains the Cerebral cortex (thin out layer of gray matter). Concerned with muscle tone, coordinates complex movements and regulates posture and balance.
What is the Cerebellum?
Structure that exits the skull through the foramen magnum and extends to approxiamately the second lumbar region (L-2) and functions as an intergrating center and an information highway.
Consists of 31 segments, each of which gives rise to a pair of spinal nerves. From top to bottom are 8 cranial nerves, 12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves, 5 sacral nerves and 1 coccygeal nerve.
What is the Spinal Cord?
Connecting the two cerebral hemispheres of the Cerebrum, these large fibrous bundles of transverse fibers. Provides a communicative pathway for impulses to move from one hemisphere to the other.
What is the Corpus Callosum?
A clear fluid circulating around the brain and spinal cord within the arachnoid space which is derived from blood. Supplies the tissues of the brain and spinal cord with oxygen and nutrients, carry away wastes
What is Cerebrospinal Fluid?
1. Nerves are bundles of ________ held together by several layers of connective tissue. A layer of _______ wraps each one.
2. _____ _____ or afferent nerves because they carry impulses to the brain or spinal cord. Recieve stimuli through sensory receptors, some are close to the skin, such as Meissner corpuscles
3. __________ also known as association nerves, connect sensory nerves to motor nerves and vice versa. They process information, analyze and store some of it, and then make decisons about appropriate responses.
4. _____ _____ or efferent nerves which mean they carry messages from the brain to the spinal cord to activate or inhibit a muscle or gland
5. A _____ ______ or action potential, is an electrical impulse of fluctuation that travels along the surface of a neuron's cell membrane.
1. Neurons / Endoneurium
2. Sensory (afferent) nerves
4. Motor (efferent) nerves
5. Nerve Impulse
1. Neurons are ofter arranged in a pattern called a _____ _____ Known as the simplest functional unit of the Nervous System, consisting of an afferent, interneuron and efferent neuron. Essentially a conduction route to and from the CNS.
2. A ________ is an instantaneous, automatic response to a stimulus from either inside or outside the body. Provides short, quick responses because the action bypasses the brain.
3. _____ _____ are responsible for contraction of skeletal muscles, such as patellar tendon tapped with rubber hammer. Examples are muscles spindles and golgli tendon organs.
4. _____ _____ or autonomic reflexes maintain homeostasis through coughing, sneezing, blinking and correcting heart rate, respitory rate and blood pressure.
5. A abnormal arc, a _____ _____ arc is caused by increased stimuli or an increase in amount of afferent impulses entering the cord. Might be result from pain, emotional stress, biomechanical dysfunction, or poor posture. Trigger points are formed in tissues distal from that of the point when subjected to compression, also known as _____ _____
1. Reflex Arc
3. Somatic Reflexes
4. Visceral Reflexes
5. Physiopathological Reflex Arc / Referred Pain
1. A Plexus is a network of intersecting ______ in the ______ nervous System. There are four which are the most important. 2. ______ Plexus (C1-C5) supplies the head and neck
3. ______ Plexus (C5-T1) supplies the arm and hand
4. ______ Plexus (L1-L4) supplies the abdomen, low back, gentalia
5. ______ Plexus (L4-S4) supplies the posterior hip, legs and feet.
1. Nerves / Peripheral
A collective term for chemical messengers involved in nerve impulse transmission, how neurons talk to one another. Can be excitatory or Inhibitory, Presynaptic neurons release them that facilitate, stimulate or inhibit postsynaptic vesicles, each vesicle stores as many as 10,000 different molecules.
What is Neurotransmitters?
The 12 Nerves of the Nervous System 1. Cranial Nerves I. _______ - Senses Smell | II. ______ -vision | III. ______ - moves eyelids, constricts the pupil
2. Cranial Nerves IV. ______ - Moves the Eyeball | V. _______ - (great nerve of face/head) chewing, pain & temperture | VI. ______ - moves the eyeball 3. Cranial NervesVII. ______ - makes facial expression, produces saliva & tears. | VIII. ______ - (auditory or acoustic) inner ear
4. Cranial Nerves IX. _______ -produces saliva, taste and swallowing | X. ______ - sensations from external ear/ external auditory
5. Cranial Nerves XI. _______ -tongue for speech | XII. _______ - tongue for movement
1. I. Olfactory | II. Optic | III. Oculomoter
2. IV. Trochlear | V. Trigeminal | VI. Abducens
3. VII. Facial | VIII. Vestibulochlear
4. IX. Glossopharyngeal | X. Vagus
5. XI. Accessory | XII. Hypoglossal
The method that produces and maintains the resting potential by this active transport system. Located in the plasma membrane, This mechanism is used for the resting potential of a neural cell membrane
Transports sodium Ions and Potassium Ions.
What is the Sodium-Potassium Pump?
One of the two photoreceptors located in the retina, these structures are needed for color vision, they are short and thick with blunt projections, mostly found in the center of the retina, each retina containing over 100 million of them.
What are Cones?
One of the Mechonorecptors, they are stretch-sensitive receptors wrapped around intrafusal muscle fibers and monitor changes in the muscle length, as well as the rate of change.
What are Muscles Spindles?
A delicate nervous tissue membrane of the eye, which is continous with the optic nerve. Each possesses 100 million rods and 3 million cones.
What is the Retina?
Slender rodlike projections are sensitive to dim light and shades of black, white and gray. Difficult to determine color and detail in dim light
What are Rods?
1. _______ is a group of skeletal muscles innervated by a single spinal segment. Some overlapping among them exists.
2. _______ is An area of skin that a specific sensory nerve root serves (C2-S5) or one of these branches of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve
3. _______ Reflex is when muscles are stretched rapidly or are overstretched (ballistic stretches) muscle spindles activate and cause reflexive contraction
4. ____ _____ Reflex is known as Tendon Reflex helps ensure that muscles do not contract too strongly
3. Stretch Reflex
4. Inverse Stretch Reflex
The junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle or gland, where a neuron and a muscle or gland, where transmission of nerves takes place. The two types that exist are Electrical and Chemical.
Electrical occurs between cardiac muscle cells and smooth muscle
Chemical is a one way process.
What is a Synapse?
When stimulus is added to neuron, Sodium channels open or gates open and Sodium rushes in changing the electrical charge inside is positive, outside now negative, creating nerve impulses considered the all-or-none response. Neurons become REPOLARIZED
What is the Active Potentional of the Active Transport System
Located in the Plasma Membrane, Sodium-potassium pump transport sodium ions and potassium ions in opposite direction at unequal rate. Moves 3 sodium out for every 2 potassium into cell (3:2) ratio. Very little sodium enters the cell, and becomes POLARIZED and NEGATIVE
Resting Potention of the Active Transport System?
1. Special ______ receptors in the body detect certain types of sensory information. Can be classified by location and by stimuli detected as well 2. _________ sensory nerve endings are located in this skin, mucous membranes, and sense organs, responding to stimuli originating from outside of body such as touch, pressure or sound
3. _________ located in the skin, ears, muscles, tendons, joints, and fascia and responds to movement and position
4. _________ also known as visceroreceptors, located in viscera and respond to stimuli orginating in the body regarding the function of internal organs, such as digestion
5. _________ immediately under the skin, include two types of free endings, one detects cold and one that detect heat. Cold receptors are 10 times more numerous than heat receptors
6. _________ Located in the retina, are senstive to light and are Rods and Cones. ________ are activated by chemical stimuli and detect smells, tastes and changes in blood chemistry.
7. _________ also referred to as free nerve endings, detect pain and are located in almost every tissue of the body, especially near the surface, except the brain