IB Abnormal

  1. Name 3 biological factors in depression
    • Cortisol Hypothesis
    • Serotonin Hypothesis
    • Genetics
  2. Cortisol Hypothesis - evidence
    • Fernald and Gunnar
    • Mexican children of depressed mothers living in poverty produce less cortisol, indicating stress system is worn out
    • High depression prevalence among people with Cushing's disease - which results in excessive production of cortisol
  3. Genetics depression
    • Nurnberger and Gershon - MZ twins higher concordnace rates than DZ twins
    • Duenwald - Particular gene plays a role in serotonin pathways
  4. Neurotransmission hypothesis - evidence
    • SSRIs
    • Janowsky et al - fed patients a drug that made them depressed. Shows that mood can by chemically altered
    • Others studies generally point to imbalance of neurotransission
  5. Cognitive etiologies of depression
    • Cognitive triad
    • Faulty thinking
  6. Beck's cognitive triad
    • Dichotomous thinking
    • Non-logical inference
    • Overgeneralisation
  7. Study for cog depression
    • Alloy et al - followed group of young Americans, after classifying them into two thinking styles
    • The positive group - almost none contracted depression
    • Negative group, 17% contracted depression
  8. SC factors in depression
    • Life events
    • Symptoms different in different cultures
  9. Life events depression
    • Brown and Harris - 29/32 depressed women had experienced severe life events
    • 78% of those who experienced life events DID NOT get depression
    • Life events include:
    • No outside employment
    • Absence of social support
    • Several young children at home
    • Loss of mother at early age
    • History of childhood abuse
  10. PTSD prevalence
    • 5% men, 10% women
    • 3% personal attack, 20% wounded vets, 50% rape victims
    • 15-24% of those who experience traumatic event
  11. PTSD biological etiologies
    • Genetic - some research points to a predisposition
    • Noradrenaline - Geracioti found more patients had higher levels of noradrenaline
    • Stimulating adrenal glands produced marked flashbacks and panic attacks in PTSD sufferers
  12. PTSD Cognitive etiologies
    • Tend to believe they have a lack of control over lives
    • Sutker et al. found that vets with a sense of purpose had less chance of experiencing PTSD
  13. Drug therapy depression
    • Kirsch and Sapirstein - lit review of prozac, 25% more effective than placebo,
    • Elkin et al. all treatments equally effective, except placebo group. Drug therapy faster
    • Kirsch et al - no more effective than placebo
    • Blumenthal - exercise in elderly patients as good as SSRI
  14. CBT Depression
    • Aims:
    • Correct faulty thinking
    • Increase activities
    • Elkin again
    • Riggs - adolescents with substance abuse. Treatment with CBT and placebo almost as good as CBT and drugs.
  15. Depression group therapy
    Toseland and Sipori - lit review. 3/4 cases, group as good as individual, 1/4, better than
  16. PTSD therapy
    Foa - CBT. Focuses on reliving experiences in safe environment. HOWEVER, patients may be worse in initial phases

    Weine group therapy
Card Set
IB Abnormal
Basic studies/dot points for IB psychology abnormal option