1. Homeostasis
    Tendency to maintain a variable, such as temperature, within a fixed range
  2. Negative Feedback
    Reduces discrepencies from set point
  3. Basal Metabolism
    Rate of energy use while the body is at rest, used largely for maintaining a constant body temperature
  4. Poikilothermic
    Maintaining the body at the same temperature as the environment
  5. Homeothermic
    Maintaining nearly constant body temperature, within a fixed range
  6. Preoptic Area/Anterior Hypothalamus
    Brain area important for temperature control
  7. Cytokines
    Chemicals released by immune system that attacks infections and communicates with the brain in anti-illness behaviors
  8. Vasopressin
    Pituitary hormone that raises blood pressure and enables the kidneys to reabsorb water and therefore to secrete highly concentrated urine
  9. Antidiuretic Hormone
    Pituitary hormone that raises blood pressure and lets kidneys to reabsorb water and therefore secrete urine
  10. Osmotic Pressure
    Tendency of water to flow across a semipermeable membrane from the area of low solute concentration to the area of high concentration.
  11. Osmotic Thirst
    Thirst that results from an increase in the concentration of solutes in the body
  12. OVLT
    Organum Vasculosum Laminae Terminalis
    • Very sensitive to the osmotic pressure of the blood
    • Brain structure on 3rd ventricle
  13. Subfornical Organ
    Brain structure adjoining the 3rd ventricle where cell monitor blood volume and relay information to the preoptic area
  14. Supraoptic Nucleus
    1/2 areas of the hypothalamus that control secretion of vasopressin
  15. Paraventricular Nucleus
    Area of hypothalamus in which activity tends to limit meal size and damage leads to excessively large meals
  16. Angiotensin II
    Hormone that constricts blood vessels, contributes to hypovolemic thirst
  17. Hypovolemic Thirst
    Thirst provoked by low blood volume
  18. Sodium-Specific Hunger
    Enhanced preference for salty tastes during a period of sodium deficiency
  19. Aldosterone
    Adrenal hormone that causes the kidneys to conserve sodium when excreting urine
  20. Lactase
    Enzyme necessary for lactose metabolism
  21. Lactose
    Sugar in milk
  22. Herbivores
    Animals that eat plants
  23. Omnivores
    Animals that eat meat and plants
  24. Conditioned Taste Aversion
    Learned avoidance of a food when consumption is followed by illness
  25. Sham-feeding
    Control procedure for an experiment in which an investigator inserts an electrode into the brain but does not pass a current
  26. Vagus Nerve
    10th cranial nerve that branches to the stomach and several other ograns, conveys info about stretching stomach walls
  27. Splanchnic Nerves
    Nerves carrying impulses from thoracic and lumbar parts of the spinal cord to the digestive organs to the spinal cord - conveys info about nutient content of food in the digestive system.
  28. Duodenum
    Part of small intestine adjoining the stomach, first part of digestive system that digests food
  29. Cholecytokinin -CCK
    Hormone released by the duodenum in response to food distension
  30. Insulin
    Pancreatic hormone that facilitates the entry of glucose into the cells
  31. Glucagon
    Pancreatic hormone that stimulates the liver to convery stored glycogen to glucose
  32. Leptin
    Peptide released by fat cells; tends to decrease eating, party inhibits release of neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus
  33. Arcuate Nucleus
    Hypothalamic area with one set of neurons sensitive to hunger signals and another sensitive to satiety signals
  34. Ghrelin
    Chemical released by stomach during food deprivation; also released in brain as a neurotransmitters which stimulates eating
  35. Melanocortin
    Type of chemical that promotes satiety in the hypothalamus
  36. Neuropeptide Y
    Inhibits activity of the paraventricular nucleus and thereby increaes meal size
  37. Agouti-related peptide
    Inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the areas of the hypothalamus that regulate eating
  38. Lateral hypothalamus
    Area of hypothalamus that is important for the control of eating and drinking
  39. Ventromedial Hypothalamus
    Region of the hypothalamus in which damage leads to faster stomach emptying and increased secretion of insulin
Card Set
Internal Regulation