Chapter 6 Anatomy

  1. Serous Membranes
    Line body cavities that lack openings to the outside
  2. Types of Serous Membranes
    • 1. Parietal pleura
    • 2. Parietal peritoneum
    • 3. Visceral pleura
    • 4. Visceral peritoneum
  3. Parietal Pleura
    Forms inner lining of the thorax
  4. Visceral Pleura
    Covers organs within the thorax
  5. Parietal Peritoneum
    Forms inner lining of the abdomen
  6. Visceral Peritoneum
    Covers organs within the abdomen
  7. Mucous Membranes
    Lines cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body (Oral & nasal cavities, digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tubes)
  8. Synvoial Membranes
    Form the inner linings of join cavities between the ends of bones at freely movable joints
  9. Cutaneous Membrane
    The skin
  10. Skin Functions
    • 1. Protective covering
    • 2. Helps regulate body temperature
    • 3. Retards water loss
    • 4. Houses sensory receptors
    • 5. Synthesizes various biochemicals
    • 6. Excretes wastes
  11. Two Layers of the Skin
    • 1. Epidermis
    • 2. Dermis
  12. Epidermis
    • 1. Outer layer of the skin
    • 2. Composed of stratified squamous epithelium
  13. Dermis
    • 1. Inner layer of the skin
    • 2. Contains connective tissue consisting of collagenous and elastic fibers
  14. Subcutaneous Layer
    • 1. Beneath the dermis
    • 2. Layer of loose connective and adipose tissues that bind the skin to underlying organs
  15. If the skin of a 150 pound person were spread out flat how many square feet would it cover?
    20 Square Feet
  16. Keratinization
    The process by which cells form fibrils of keratin and harden
  17. What are the layers of the epidermis starting with the most outer layer?
    • 1. Stratum corneum
    • 2. Stratum lucidum
    • 3. Stratum granulosum
    • 4. Stratum spinosum
    • 5. Stratum basale
  18. Subcutaneous Injections
    Administered into subcutaneous layer beneath the skin
  19. Intradermal Injections
    Injected within the skin
  20. Intramuscular Injections
    Administered into muscles
  21. Hypodermic Injections
    • 1. Subcutaneous injections
    • 2. Intramuscular injections
  22. Transdermal Patch
    Drum diffuses into the epidermis and enters the blood vessels of the dermis
  23. Transdermal Patch Uses
    • Protect against:
    • 1. Motion sickness
    • 2. Chest pain associated w/ heart disease
    • 3. Elevated blood pressure

    4. Delivers nicotine to help people stop smoking
  24. What layer of the epidermis is found only in the thickened skin of the palms and soles?
    Stratum lucidum
  25. What layer of the epidermis may be missing where the epidermis is thin?
    Straum granulosum
  26. Epidermis Protects Against:
    • 1. Excessive water loss
    • 2. Mechanical injury
    • 3. Effects of chemicals
    • 4. Disease-causing microorganisms
  27. Melanocytes
    Specialized cells in the epidermis that produce melanin
  28. Melanin
    Dark pigment normally found in skin and hair that gives it its color
  29. Melanin Protects Against:
    Mutations of the DNA of skin cells and other mutations caused by ultraviolet radiation
  30. Cytocrine Secretion
    Long extensions of melanocytes transfer melanin granules into other nearby cells
  31. What is skin color largely determined by?
    Amount of melanin produced by melanocytes and the and distribution and size of the pigment granules
  32. Environmental Factors Influencing Skin Color
    • 1. Sunglight
    • 2. Ultraviolet light from sun lamps
    • 3. X-rays
  33. Physiological Factors Influencing Skin Color
    • 1. Oxygen concentration of the blood
    • 2. Diet
    • 3. Chemicals
  34. What causes fingerprints?
    Dermal papillae
  35. Pressure Ulcer AKA
    • 1. Decubitus ulcer
    • 2. Bedsore
  36. Pressure Ulcer
    Weight of body presses against a surface and blocks the skin's blood supply, tissue begin to break down
  37. Dermal Blood Vessel Functions
    • 1. Supply nutrients to all skin cells
    • 2. Help regulate body temperature
  38. Hair Follicle
    Tubelike depression in the skin in which a hair develops
  39. Arrector Pili Muscle
    Attatches to each hair follicle, causes the hair to stand on end when it contracts
  40. Sebaceous Glands
    Holocrine glands that secrete an oily mixture into the hair follicles that keeps the hair and skin soft, pliable, and waterproof
  41. Nails
    Protective coverings on ends of the fingers and toes
  42. Sweat Glands AKA
    Sudoriferous Glands
  43. Two Types Sweat Glands
    • 1. Eccrine Glands
    • 2. Appocrine Glands
  44. Eccrine Glands
    Respond to elevated body temperature caused by heat or physical excercise; common on forhead, neck, and back
  45. Apocrine Glands
    Become active wen a person is upset, frightened, or in pain; common in axillary regions and groin
  46. Hypothalamus
    Signals dermal blood vessels to dilate when the body is hot and some of the heat is carried to the outside
  47. Nervous System
    Stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to become active when the body is hot
  48. Inflammation
    A tissue response to stress that causes blood vessel dilation and fluid accumulation in the affected region
  49. Cutaneous Carcinomas
    Most common type of skin cancer occurring frequently in light-skinned people over age 40; caused by regular exposure to sunlight
  50. Cutaneous Melanomas
    May appear in people of any age and are cause by short, intermittent exposure to high-intensity sunlight
  51. Acne
    Disease of the sebaceous glands that produces blackheads and pimples
  52. Alopecia
    Hair loss, usually sudden
  53. Athlete's Foot
    Fungus infection usually in the skin of the toes and soles
  54. Birthmark
    Congenital blemish or spot on the skin, visible at birth or soon after
  55. Boil
    Bacterial infection of the skin, produced when bacteria enter a hair follicle
  56. Carbuncle
    Bacterial infection, similar to a boil, that spreads into the subcutaneous tissues
  57. Cyst
    Liquid-filled sac or capsule
  58. Dermatitis
    Inflammation of the skin
  59. Eczema
    Noncontagious skin rash that produces intching, blistering, and scaling
  60. Erythema
    Reddening of the skin due to dilation of dermal blood vessels in response to injury or inflammation
  61. Herpes
    Infectious disease of the skin, usually caused by the herpes simplex virus and characterized by recurring formations of small clusters of vesicles
  62. Impetigo
    Contagious disease of bacterial origin, characterized by pustules that rupture and become covered with loosely held crusts
  63. Keloid
    Elevated, enlarging fibrous scar usually initiated by an injury
  64. Mole
    Fleshy skin tumor that is usually pigmented; colors range from brown to black
  65. Pediculosis
    Disease produced by an infestation of lice
  66. Pruritus
    Itching of the skin
  67. Psoriasis
    Chronic skin disease characterized by red patches covered with silvery scales
  68. Pustule
    Elevated, pus-filled area on the skin
  69. Scabies
    Disease resulting from an infestation of mites
  70. Seborrhea
    Hyperactivity of the sebaceous glands, causing greasy skin and dandruff
  71. Ulcer
    Open sore
  72. Urticaria
    Allergic reaction of the skin that produces reddish, elevated patches (hives)
  73. Wart
    Flesh-colored, raised area caused by a viral infection
Card Set
Chapter 6 Anatomy
Notecards for chapter 6 anatomy and physiology.