Unfolding of skills or potential regardless of practice or training. Attainment of full development of a particular skill.
Continuity Development Theory
Aging theory that suggest that aging should be viewed as part of the life cycle not as a seperate terminal stage.
Growth that can be measured in inches/cm/lbs/kgs
Moral issues that are stongly believed by a culture
Socially accepted rules & behaviors that guide an individual's behavior & interactions within the culture. Norms also determine the role of each family member by age, gender or ranking.
Communication using body language.
- 8 modes of nonverbal communication:
- Physical appearance & dress
- Body movement & posture
- Facial expression
- Eye contact
- Tone & volume of voice
The developing organism. Multi-celled structure implanted in the uterine wall, called this until the end of the 8th week
The developing organism. Called this after the 8th week of development until birth, all essential structures are formed.
Soft spots on anterior & posterior of skull. Anterior fontanel closes at 18 months.
Moro Reflex (Startle Reflex)
Sudden movement or jarring of position causes extension and adduction of the extremities. Disappears by age 3 or 4 months.
Tonic Neck Reflex
If head of backlying newborn is turned to one side, infant will extend arm and leg on that side. Disappears by age 5 months.
Directional term that refers to the growth and development that begins at the head and progresses downward toward the feet.
- Directional term that refers to growth and development that progresses from the center of the body toward to the extremities.
- ex. shoulder control preceds mastery of hands, which is followed by finger dexterity
Gross Motor Skills
Movements of the large muscles of the arms and legs.
Fine Motor Skills
Movements of the hands and fingers.
Palmar Grasp (Pincer Grasp)
Newborn briefly grasps any object placed in hands. Present from age 6 weeks, disappears by age 3 months)
- During infancy stage, infant does not require another person to play with them.
- ex. Brightly colored objects, objects that produce noise, and objects with different textures are appealing to this age group.
Play style typical of toddlers wherby they play alongside each other but do not really interact or share.
"Baby" or primary teeth, which usually erupt at about 6 to 7 months of age.
- Repetitive behavior, habits or routines that serve to decrease anxiety.
- ex. toddlers may prefer using same cup, develop eating fads or habits.
- Negative, rebellious behavior exhibited by toddlers that is caused by frustration when his needs/wants are not met immeadiately or conflict of wills.
- ex. temper tantrums
Anxiety brought on by stress when the young child is seperated from family by school, hospitalization or family death.
Jealousy of siblings that causes feelings of insecurity.
A return to an earlier stage of development during stressful periods.
- Self-centered thoughts or actions.
- ex. toddlers cannot sense the world from any other point of view other than their own
- A young boy's sexual attraction for his mother and unconscious wish to replace his father.
- ex. Freud's Psychosexual Development - Phallic Stage 3-6 years
Bed-wetting after the age when urinary control has been established.
An emotional state of having conflicting, opposite feelings, such as love and hate for a person or object.
An impairment of high-frequency hearing assoicated with advancing age.
An agreement between the verbal and nonverbal language. It is important that the spoken word matches the nonverbal communication so that the message is clear to the receiver.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
- A response to stress that was described by Hans Selye:
- 1) Alarm stage: hormones place body in a fight or flight state of readiness
- 2) State of resistance: body attempts to adapt to the stressors
- 3) State of exhaustion: after prolonged exposure to stress, the body's energy becomes depleted. This may result in disease or destruction.
When newborn's sole is stroked, toes hyperextend and fan outward; big toe turns upward. Disappears by age 3 months.
When newborn's cheek is gently stroked, infant turns toward that side and opens mouth. Disappears by age 4 to 6 months.
Newborn makes sucking movement when anything touches lips or tongue. Diminishes by age 6 months.
- Judges, controls & punishes
- A young girl's sexual attraction to her father & unconscious wish to replace her mother.
- ex. Freuds Psychosexual Development - Phallic Stage 3-6 years
Freud's Psychosexual Dev. - Oral Stage
- Birth-18 months
- Infants mouth is the erogenous area and source of all comfort and pleasure
- Relief from anxiety through oral gratification of needs
Freud's Psychosexual Dev. - Anal Stage
- 18 months - 3 years
- Learning independence and control with focus on the excretory functions.
- Process of defecation gives the child pleasure & satisfaction.
Freud's Psychosexual Dev. - Phallic Stage
- 3-6 years
- Identification with parent of same sex, development of sexual identity, focus on genital organs.
- Masturbation & exhibitionism is normal.
- Oedipus & Electra Complex
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory - Trust vs. Mistrust
- birth to 18 months
- When needs are met in a timely fashion, child develops trust in environment. Failure to meet needs causes mistrust
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory - Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
- 18 months - 3 years
- Child develops self-control & independence through self-feeding, mobility, dressing & toilet-training.
- Without loving support, child develops feelings of shame & doubt.
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory - Initiative vs. Guilt
- 3 to 6 years
- Child begins to explore environment & try different roles. Imagination allows for development of potential.
- Without freedom to explore child may develop feelings of guilt and inadequacy.
Piaget's Cognitive Theory - Sensorimotor Stage
- birth - 2 years
- Increased mobility and awareness & development of sense of self as seperate from the external environment. Concept of object permanence evolves (peek-a-boo & jack-in-the-box)
Piaget's Cognitive Theory - Preoperational Stage
- 2 to 6 years
- Development & mastery of language.
- Egocentrism, unable to accept other viewpoints.
- Learning to express self with language, developing understanding of symbolic gestures, achieving object permanence.
Kohlbery Moral Theory - Preconventional Thinking
- 4 to 10 years
- Behavior motivated by fear of punishment.
- Behavior motivated by egocentrism and concern for self.
- Body's basic primitive urges. Primarily concerned with satisfaction & pleasure, the principle pleasure (libido) is the driving force behind mose human behavior.
- Id demands immeadiate satisfaction
- Executive of the mind
- Most closely related to reality
Defense Mechanisms (Mental Mechanisms)
- Techniques used to help individuals cope with the threat of anxiety.
- Way to protect one's ego.
- Depending on frequency of use, they can be helpful or harmful.
- Mental mechanism where one consciously puts out of awareness one's distressed feelings.
- ex. "I can't think about the fight I just had with my husband while at work"
- Mental mechanism used to justify or excuse undesirable actionrs or feelings. Face-saving technique that may or may not deal with the truth.
- ex. student blames teacher for "F" when in reality he did not study for the exam.
- Mental mechanism in which one takes on the personality traits of another person, usually one held in high esteem.
- ex. young boy assumes masculine characteristics admired in his father. Nursing student copys behavior of professor held in high esteem.
- Mental mechanism in which the individual channels or redirects unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable outlets. *positive, effective coping mechanism*
- ex. scorned lover expresses self in song
- Mental mechanism where the individual is unable to recognize the event or emotions surrounding an occurence. Events are so painful they are pushed out of consciousness.
- ex. woman is told her husband is dead, but she tries calling his phone anyways.
- Mental mechanism that transfers emotions associated with a person or object to another, less threatening person or object.
- ex. Man is angry at boss but yells at his wife.
- Mental mechanism referred to as the blaming mechanism, individual rejects unacceptable thought or feelings & attributes them to another person.
- ex. Man accuses wife of cheating when he actually is.
- Mental mechanism that allows the person to make up for deficiences in one area by excelling in another. Helps maintain self-esteem.
- ex. school age boy tries to excel in school to compensate for lack of athletic abilities.