1. Food presented to the dog
    Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
  2. Dog salivating at the sight of food
    Unconditioned Response (UCR)
  3. Dog salivating because of the noise of a bell
    Conditioned Response
  4. Bell Ringing
    Conditioned Stimulus
  5. Bell
    Neutral stimulus
  6. Palvoc
    Conducted the Palvoc's dog experiment
  7. Simultaneous conditioning
    • CS and UCS begin at the same time and end at the same time
    • Ring the bell and present the food at the same time
  8. Short Delay conditioning
    • Present the CS and wait couple of seconds then present the UCS
    • Ring the bell then wait couple of seconds then present the food
  9. Trace Conditioning
    • Present the CS and end it, then wait a while, then present the UCS
    • Ring the bell and end it, wait a while, then present the food
  10. Which conditioning is the best?
    Short Delay conditioning is the best because it gets the persons attention when you present the CS and make the person pay attention when you present the UCS
  11. What is required for a neutral stimulus to be effective?
    • In order for a neutral stimulus to be effective, there must be 3 properties present
    • Noble
    • Unusual
    • Intense
  12. Instinct
    We tend to pay attention to things that are unexpected and different
  13. Unlearning a conditioned behavior
  14. Properties of Extinction
    • Does'nt happen instantly
    • Don't unlearn something all at once
    • Present the CS without the UCS
    • Ring the bell witout the food
  15. Spontaneuous Recovery
    The re-emergence of a conditioned behavior that has been previously extinguished
  16. Stimulus Generalization
    Dog will respond to other noises or bells of a similar pitch to the bell
  17. Stimulus discrimination
    The dog will discriminate between the sound of the cabinet and the time of day it occurs when feeding the dog
  18. Higher Order conditioning
    • After something has been very well learned, it can be used as a UCS
    • (we aren't born to desire money
    • Power and success (UCS) are associated with money (CS)
  19. Can someone learn fear through classical conditioning
    Yes, John Watson conducted an experiment on 'Little Albert"
  20. Little Albert
    • Little Albert liked to play with white lab rats but then Watson conducted an experiment
    • When the rat came out,along with it was a very loud noise that scared "little Albert'
    • He then became scared of the white rat
    • His stimulus generalized and became scared of everything that was white and furry like Santa Clause and Rabbits
  21. Operant Conditioing
    The use of consequences to modify the occurance or form of behavior
  22. Shaping
    • A method used to train people or animals
    • Pigeons were shaped into playing ping pong
  23. Operant Extinction
    Occurs when the response is no longer reinforced
  24. Reinforcement
    Makes the behavior MORE likely to occur
  25. Punishment
    Makes the behavior LESS likely to occur
  26. Positive Reinforcement
    • Add something to make the behavior more likely to occur
    • You give you kids money when they get good grades so your kids will continue to get good grades
  27. Negative Reinforcement
    • You take something away to make the behavior more likely to occur
    • You tell your kids that if they get good grades that they wouldnt have to do the dishes
  28. Positive Punishment
    • You add something to make the behavior less likely to occur
    • Your kid doesnt study so you hit or yell at him
  29. Negative Punishment
    • You take something away to make the behavior less likely to occur
    • Your kid doesnt study and always plays video games, so you take away the video games
  30. Continuous Reinforcement
    Occurs everytime
  31. Sometimes Intermittent erinforcement
    Much more effective for a behavior to last longer
  32. Ratio Schedule
    Reinforce the behavior X times it occurs
  33. Interval Schedule
    10 minutes after the behavior occurs
  34. 2 types of negative reinforcement
    Escape and Avoidance
  35. Escape
    Remove yourself from the situation
  36. Avoid
    • You avoid the situation
    • You know there is going to be a fight at home so you dont go home, you avoid it
  37. What is required for a punishment to be maximum effective
    It has to happen when the behavior occurs and rely little on punishment
  38. 2 types of memory
    Short and long term memory
  39. Short term memory
    • Limited capacity (7 +/- 2 chunks)
    • Information lasts 15-20 seconds without doing anything with the information
    • Cannot be improved
  40. Long term memory
    • Huge amount of capacity (limit unknown)
    • memory lasts a human life span
  41. Maintenance Rehearsal
    Repeating information and keeping it active in the short term memory
  42. Where are short and long term stored? in different places?
    • Short and long term are both stored in the same place but are activated differently
    • When the level of activation crosses a threshold, its in the short term memory, Quick and ready to access
    • When the level of activation is below the threshold, then it is the long term memory, takes a little longer to retrieve
  43. How does information gets stored in the long term memory
    • Elaborate rehearsal
    • Taking the information and elaborating it by
    • Associating the information
    • Building, working with i
  44. Retrieval Cue
    A stimulus that allows us to retrieve information from the long term memory
  45. What determines our ability to remember stuff?
    is the match or similarity of the information thats in the retrieval and the information in the memory
  46. Cue dependent
    • Failure to recall information
    • Random information comes up instead
  47. Encoding specificity
    Matching between the retrieval cue and memory that drives retrieval
  48. Encoding specificity- what is the detriment in the long term memory?
    is the match between the information in the retrieval que and retrieval in the long term memory
  49. How accurate is the information that we recieve?
    Not very accuarte, we may believe that we are accurate but in reality, we are not
  50. Construction
    • Supplying our own detals about a memory event
    • While hearing a story, you supplit the missing details based on your knowledge of events
  51. Reconstruction
    • Retrieving the constructed information
    • Used as Eye witness testimony
  52. Reasons why we cant remember something
    • Its was stored wrong
    • Got over writted
    • Faded away
  53. Effort Justification
    we put alot of effort into something and what we received out of it wasnt worth the effort
  54. Fear inducing works if the results are...
    • Terror "Elect my opponent and we will go to war"
    • Avoidable consequences "dont do drugs, say no"
    • View fairly likely to occur unless taking the necessary steps
  55. Two types of persuasion
    • Sender -sending the information
    • Recievor - receiving the information
  56. One Sided Argument
    • Only presenting one side of the argument
    • This only works if the audience is ignorant about the information or if they agree with your argument
  57. Two sided argument
    Only works if the audience is not convinced or if they know something about the information
  58. Rhetorical Argument
    • You leave the audience to make the decision themselves which is very hard to do
    • Only works if the audience is neutral and not biased
    • Your argument is strong and compelling
    • and the audience must do work and be devoted in doing so
  59. Receiver facts
    • Characteristics about a persons attitude that you want to change
    • If the person making the argument is more like you, the more convincing the argument is going to be
    • "Be like Mike"
  60. Central Route
    • Based on context
    • Focuses on the products messages in ads
    • Much difficult to be effective and produce long lasting results
  61. Peripheral route
    • Being persuaded in a manner that is not based on arguments or the massage of content
    • Can be very effective but attitude doesnt last long
  62. Latutude of acceptance
    • People have attitude on something
    • Range around what your attitude is
    • Convinced to shift your attitude in the latitude
  63. Attribution
    An answer to why something happens, why people act the way they are
  64. Actor
    Engaging in the action
  65. Observer
    Explaining the action
  66. When do people make attributions?
    • only at certain circumstances
    • event unusual or unexpected
    • event has personal consequences for you
    • People make attributions when asked too
  67. What attributions do people make?
    Internal and external
  68. Internal Attribution
    • About something internal about a person like their personality
    • People tend to make internal about peoples behaviors
  69. External
    • Locates the cause of the behavior of external
    • People make externals about their own behavior
  70. Fundamental attribution error
  71. Defensive attribution
    Something terrible happens to someone else you put yourself in that situation and say that it was her fault that she dressed that way. You would say that you wouldnt of dressed that way
  72. Attributions
    basic pattern called fundamental attribution error
  73. Defense attribution
    defending yourself of it not happening to you
Card Set
Test 2