- -25-30 cm long
- -Starts at the level of C6
- -Ends below diaphragm (T10-T12)
- -Distal part may act as sphincter
- -40cm from incisor teeth
- -Accompanied by 2 vagus nerves and the enter through esophageal hiatus (T10)
- -3 narrowings:
- 1-upper sphincter
- 2- Aortic narrowing
- 3- Diaphragmatic narrowing
Esophagus function/ NN
- Function- conveying the bolus of food to the stoach
- NN- sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagus)
What is Cardia
where esophagus enters the stomach
Blood supply of Esophagus
- Upper part: (cervical portion): by inf. /thyroid A.
- Middle part: (thoracic portion) by thoracic aorta and from bronchial arteries.
- Lower part: left gastric artery (from celiac artery and inferior phrenic artery
Esophagus Venous drainage:
- Inferior thyroid vein, azygos, hemiazaygos, and gastric veins.
- **Gastric veins drain into the portal vein, therefore is a link b/w portal and the systemic circulation (Porto-Caval anastomosis).
Esophageal Varices: in Liver Cirrhosis
- Histology: Mucosa: stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium (in Cardia, it is columnar, like rest of the GI tract).
- 4- Muscularis mucosa
- 5- Submucosa
- 6- Tunica muscularis- consist of inner circular and outer longitudinal muscular layers
- 7- adventitia