AP Bio Chapter 8

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  1. Metabolism
    The totality of an organisms chemical reactions
  2. Metabolic Pathway
    Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product
  3. Catabolic Pathways
    • Breakdown metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
    • ex. cellular respiration
  4. Anabolic Pathways
    • Consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones
    • Sometimes called Biosynthetic pathways
  5. Bioengergetics
    Study of how energy flows through living organisms
  6. Energy
    The capacity to cause change
  7. Kinetic Energy
    Associated with the relative motion of objects
  8. Heat/Thermal Energy:
    Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
  9. Potential Energy
    Energy that matter posses because of its location or structure
  10. Chemical Energy
    Term used to refer to the potential energy available for release in a chemican reaction
  11. Therodynamics
    Study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
  12. First Law of Therodynamics
    • Energy of the universe is constant
    • "Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed"
    • ex. bear eating fish for use of running
  13. Entropy
    Measure of disorder or randomness
  14. Second Law of Therodynamics
    • "Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe"
    • ex. heat released of a bear while running affecting the air around
  15. Spontaneous Process
    Process that can occur without an input of energy
  16. Free Energy
    • The portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell
    • ▲G
  17. Exergonic Reaction
    • Proceeds with a net release of free energy
    • Looses energy
  18. Endergonic Reaction
    • One that absorbs free energy from its surroundings
    • Gains energy
  19. 3 Main Types of Work Cell Does
    • Chemical
    • Transport
    • Mechanical
  20. Energy Coupling
    Key feautre in the way cells manage their energy resources to do work by use of an exergonic process to drive an energonic one
  21. ATP
    Makes RNA
  22. Phophorylated Intermediate
    The recipient witht he phosphate group covalently bonded to it
  23. Enzyme
    • Macrocmolecule that acts as a catalyst
    • (Special Protein
  24. Catalyst
    Chemical agen that speeds up a reacton without being consumed by the reaction
  25. Activation Energy
    • The initial investment of energy for starting a reaction
    • The energy required to contort the reactant molecules so the bonds can break
    • EA
  26. Substrate
    The reactant an enzyme acts on
  27. Enzyme Substrate Complex
    When enzyme binds to its substrate
  28. Active Site
    • Restriced region of the enzyme molecule actually binds to the substrate
    • Typically a pocket or groove on the surface of the enzymes where catalysis occurs
  29. Induced Fit
    Shape fit to make the active site fit even more snugly around the substrate
  30. Cofactors
    Bound tightly to the enzyme as permanent residents, or binded loosely and reversibly along with the substrate
  31. Coenzyme
    When cofactor is an orgain molecule
  32. Noncompetitive Inhibitors
    Do not directly compete with the substrate to bind to the enzyme at the active site
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AP Bio Chapter 8
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