Sociology chapter 8

  1. Minority groups
    • Distinguishable from dominant groups
    • Excluded or denied full participation
    • Less access to power and resources; evaluated less favorably
    • Stereotyped, ridiculed, condemned, or otherwise defamed
    • Develop collective identities
  2. Race
    is a group within the human species that is identified by a society as presumably having certain biologically inherited physical characteristics

    Racial classifications have been based on numerous physical characteristics
  3. 18th and 19th century, four major groupings were assigned
    • •Mongoloid
    • •Caucasoid
    • •Negroid
    • •Australoid
    • Later 30 more racial subcategories were created
  4. In the 1970s, the United Nations issued a “Statement on Race” that stated
    • All people are born free and equal both in dignity and in rights
    • •Racism stultifies personal development
    • •(Racial) conflicts cost nations money and resources
    • •Racism foments international conflict
  5. Social significance
    • is the idea from Symbolic interaction theory that social consequences constitute reality
    • People assigned group membership, in part, on physical appearance
    • All individuals classify objects, including humans
    • Classifications used to scientifically study humans
    • Classifications can provide individuals with an identity
  6. The division of Black America
    • Two in five African Americans are middle-class
    • Majority of urban, black underclass are unemployed
  7. Ethnic groups
    • are groups where membership is based on shared cultural heritage and other cultural factors and is often connected with a national or geographic identity
    • •Many racial groups are ethnic groups
    • •Some ethnic groups are concentrated in ethnic enclaves
  8. self-fulfilling prophesy
    is the incorporation of stereotyped behavior into an individual’s view of themselves
  9. Frustration-aggression theory
    is a theory which states that acts of prejudice and discrimination are motivated by anger and frustration individuals feel when they cannot achieve their work or goals
  10. Scapegoating
    is a form of aggressive action motivated by frustration against minority groups because an individual is unable to vent frustration toward the real target or cause
  11. Ideological racism
    is an attempt to justify racism on the basis of a pseudoscientific set of ideas
  12. Symbolic racism
    people insist they are not prejudiced or racist, yet oppose social policies that would eliminate racism and make true equality of opportunity possible
  13. Institutional racism
    involves discrimination that is hidden within the system
  14. Purposeful or De jure discrimination
    is built into the law or is part of the explicit policies of an organization
  15. Unintentional or De facto discrimination
    results from broad policies that favor one group and disadvantage another
  16. Side-effect discrimination
    practices in one institutional area that have a negative impact because they are linked to practices in another institutional area
  17. Past-in-present discrimination
    practices from the past that may no longer be allowed but that continue to affect people today
  18. The form of dominant and minority group relations in a nation depend on several factors:
    • Who has more power
    • The needs of the domination group for commodities (labor and/or other resources)
    • The cultural norms of each group
    • The social histories of the group
    • The physical and cultural identifiers of the group
    • The times and circumstances
  19. Genocide
    is the systematic effort of a dominant group to destroy a minority
  20. Subjugation
    refers to the subordination of one group to another that holds power and authority
  21. Population transfer and transnationalism
    refers to the removal of a minority group from a region or country
  22. Assimilation
    refers to the structural and cultural merging of minority and majority groups (minority loses their original identity)
  23. Pluralism
    occurs when each ethnic or racial group in a country maintains its own culture and separate set of institutions but has recognized equity in society (i.e., Switzerland)
  24. Three critical factors contribute to hostility over resources
    • If two groups of people are identifiably different then “we” versus “they” thinking may develop
    • If the groups come into conflict over scarce resources that both groups want for themselves, hostilities are very likely to arise
    • If one group has much more power than the other, intense dislike between the two groups and misrepresentation of each group by the other is virtually inescapable
  25. Split Labor Market theory
    (a branch of conflict theory)-- characterizes the labor market as having two levels
  26. Primary market
    clean jobs
  27. Secondary market
    minorities, especially from the urban underclass, are most likely to work in this market
  28. Structural-Functional Theory
    • A cheap pool of labors who are in and out of work serves several functions for society
    • •A cheap pool of labor provides a labor force to do “dirty work”
    • •They make occupational which service the poor possible
    • •They buy goods others do not want
    • •They set examples for others of what not to be
    • •They allow others to feel good about giving to charity
  29. Prejudice, racism, and discrimination are dysfunctional for society in many ways
    • •They result in a loss of human resources
    • •They cost society due to poverty and crime
    • •They maintain hostilities between groups
    • •And they fuel disrespect for those in power
  30. Individual Effects
    • Unequal life chances, health, and access to property
    • Victims can also have low self-esteem from devalued status in society
  31. Organizations and communities
    • Lose the talents of individuals they exclude
    • Government subsidies cost millions but made necessary by lack of opportunities for minority individuals
  32. Cultural costs
    Attempts to justify racism by stereotyping and labeling
  33. Five common reactions to dealing with a minority group status
    • Assimilation – accommodation to prejudice and discrimination
    • Acceptance – live with minority status with little overt challenge to the system
    • Avoidance – shunning all contact with the dominant group
    • Aggression – results from anger and resentment over minority status and from subjugation may lead to retaliation or violence
    • Change-oriented Action – minority groups pursue social change in meso and macro-levels of society
  34. Individual or small group solutions
    human relations workshops, group encounters and therapy
  35. Group contact
    integrated housing projects, job programs to promote minority hiring, busing children to schools
  36. Institutional and societal strategies
    lobbying, watchdog monitoring, education information dissemination, protest marches, rallies, and boycotts
  37. Affirmative Action
    is a social policy created to change the unequal distribution of resources
  38. Strict affirmative action
    is a policy that involves affirmative or positive steps to make sure that unintended discrimination does not occur
  39. Quota systems
    are policies that require employers to hire a certain percentage of minorities (now considered unconstitutional and therefore illegal)
  40. Preference policies
    are policies based on the belief that sometime people must be treated differently in order to treat them fairly and to create equality
  41. Objectives of preference policies include
    • Eliminate qualifications that are not substantially related to the job that unwittingly favor members of the dominant group
    • Foster achievement of objectives of the organization that are only possible through enhanced diversity
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Sociology chapter 8