Biology - The Scientific Method

  1. Defintions
    The Scientific Method: process of investigation in which problems are identified and their suggested explanations are tested by carrying out experiments

    Observation: information obtained by our senses

    Hypothesis: an educated guess based on observations

    Experimentation: Designed to test the hypothesis

    • Data: consists of the measurements, observations or
    • information gathered from experiments

    Theory: A hypothesis that has been supported by many different experiments

    A Principle or Law: Arises from a theory that has been shown to be valid when fully tested over a long period of time

    Variable: a factor that may change in an experiment

    • Control: Is used to provide a standard against which
    • the actual experiment can be judged
  2. For Experiments to be fair
    • Sample size must be the same and quite large
    • Random selection is used
    • Others must be able to replicate experiments
    • Double Blind testing must be used
  3. Limits of the value of scientific method
    • Extent of our knowledge
    • Basis of investigation
    • Interpreting results
    • Changes in the natural world
    • Accidental discoveries
  4. Ethical Issues
    • Use of captive animals
    • Cloning animals
    • Whether or not evolution took place
    • Freezing sperm and embryos
Card Set
Biology - The Scientific Method