Cognition and Language

  1. cognitive psychology
    the study of the mental processes by which information from the enviroment is modified, made meaningful, stored, retrieved, used, and manipulated to others
  2. information-processing system
    mechanisms for receiving information, representing it with symbols, and manipulating it.
  3. thinking
    the manipulation of mental representations
  4. reaction time
    the time between the presentation of a stimulus and an overt response to it.
  5. evoked brain potential
    a small, temporary change in EEG voltage that is evoked by some stimulus
  6. concept
    a category of objects, events, or ideas that have common properties
  7. formal concept
    a concept that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or properties
  8. natural concept
    a concept that has no fixed set of defining features but has a set of characteristics features
  9. prototype
    a member of a natural concept that possesses all or most of its characterisitic features
  10. proposition
    a mental representation of the relationship between concepts
  11. schema
    a generalization about categories of objects, places, events, and people
  12. script
    a mental representation of familiar sequences of activity
  13. mental model
    a cluster of propsitions representing our understanding of objects and processes that guides our interaction with those things
  14. images
    a mental representation of visual information
  15. cognitive map
    a mental representation of familiar parts of the envirmonment
  16. reasoning
    the process by which peoploe generate and evaluate arguments and reach conclusions about them
  17. formal reasoning
    the process of folloing a set of rigorous procedures for reaching valid conclusions
  18. algorithm
    a systematic procddure that cannot fail to prduce a correct solution to a problem, if a solution exists
  19. rules of logic
    sets of statements that provide a formula for drawing valid conclisions
  20. syllogism
    an argument made up of two propositions, called premises, and a conclision based on those premises, and a conclusion based on those premises.
  21. confirmation bias
    the tendency to pay more attention to evidence in support of one's hypothesis
  22. informal reasoning
    the process of evaluation a conclusion, theory , or course or action on the basis of the believability of evidence.
  23. heuristics
    time-saving mental short-cuts used in reasoing
  24. anchoring heuristic
    a mental shortfut that involves basing judgements on existing information
  25. representativeness heuristic
    a mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in a given class on the basis of its similarity to the members of that class
  26. availability heuristic
    a mental shortcut through which judgements are based on information that is most easily brought to mind
  27. mental set
    the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist, even when they might not always be the mostefficient alternative.
  28. functional fixedness
    a tendency to think about familiar objects in familiar ways that may prevent using them in other ways
  29. artificial intelligence (AI)
    the field that studies how to program computers to imitate the products of human perception, understanding, and thought
  30. utility
    a subjective measure of value
  31. expected value
    the total benefit to be expected if a decision were to be repeated several times
  32. language
    symbols and a set of rules for combining them that provides a vehicle for communication
  33. grammar
    a set of rules for combinging the words used in a given language
  34. phoneme
    the smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech
  35. morpheme
    the smallest unit of language that has meaning
  36. word
    unit of language composed of one or more morphemes
  37. syntax
    the set of rules that govern the formation of phrases and sentences in a language
  38. semantics
    rules governing the meaning of words and sentences
  39. surface structure
    the order in which words are arranged in sentences
  40. deep structure
    an abstract representation of the underlying meaning of a given sentence
  41. babblings
    the first sounds infants make that resemble speech
  42. one-word stage
    a stage of language developement during which children tend to use one word at a time
Card Set
Cognition and Language
Cognition and Language-Psychology